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Faculty & Research

Research Colloquium 2013-2014

We're looking forward to seeing you at our upcoming Distinguished Speaker Series that kicks off November 12, 2014, here at UC Irvine with Kimberly Cripe, president and CEO of CHOC Children's, one of the top pediatric health care systems in the nation. More information can be found here!

Marketing

 

Professor Mary Gilly

Title: "Cultural Competence and Cultural Compensatory Mechanisms in Bi-National Households"

Co-author:  Samantha N.N. Cross (Ph.D. Alumna)

Accepted at: Journal of Marketing

February 2014

 

While it is well-known that the U.S. population is increasingly culturally diverse, cultural diversity within U.S. households is less recognized. This study investigates the effects of cultural dynamics on decision roles and influence within the bi-national household. In particular, we study households where one spouse is from the U.S. and the other is an immigrant. The analysis uses data from surveys and in-depth interviews. Cultural competence (knowledge of country of residence) as a source of expert power and as a form of cultural capital in family decision-making emerge as overarching themes. Cultural compensatory mechanisms engaged in by one family member in response to sacrifices made by the immigrant by moving are found to play out in consumption as well. Implications for family decision-making theory, marketers and society are discussed.

 


 

Professor Imran Currim

Title: "Information Processing Pattern and Propensity to Buy: An Investigation of Online Point-of-Purchase Behavior"

Co-authosr:  Ivan Jeliazkov (UCI, Economics) and Ofer Mintz (Ph.D. Alumnus)

Accepted at: Marketing Science

April 2013

 

The information processing literature provides a wealth of laboratory evidence on the effects that the choice task and individual characteristics have on the extent to which consumers engage in alternative- versus attribute-based information processing. Less attention has been paid to studying how the processing pattern at the point of purchase is associated with propensity to buy in shopping settings. To understand this relationship, we formulate a discrete choice model and perform formal model comparisons to distinguish among several possible dependence structures. We consider models involving an existing measure of information processing, PATTERN, a latent variable version of this measure, and several new refinements and generalizations. Analysis of a unique dataset of 895 shoppers on a popular electronics website supports the latent variable specification and provides validation for several hypotheses and modeling components. We find a positive relationship between alternative-based processing and purchase, and a tendency of lower price-category shoppers to engage in alternative-based processing. The results also support the case for joint modeling and estimation. These findings can be useful for future work in information processing, and suggest that likely buyers can be identified while engaged in information processing prior to purchase commitment, an important first step in targeting decisions.

 


 

Professor Mary Gilly

Title: "Bridging Cultural Divides: The Role and Impact of Binational Families"

Co-author:  Samantha N.N. Cross (Ph.D. Alumnus)

Accepted at: Journal of Public Policy & Marketing

March 2013

 

The binational household, in essence, is a marriage of cultures, providing a bridge between previously disconnected cultural dispositions and consumption experiences. This essay posits that studying the role and impact of this culturally diverse micro-setting adds to the field’s knowledge and appreciation of culturally heterogeneous interactions. Understanding the impact of the binational family has several societal and public policy implications. The authors challenge researchers to think of the binational family as an important and relevant context in which to explore marketplace diversity, inclusion, and creativity.

 

 

Professor Connie Pechmann

Title: "Avoiding Poor Health or Approaching Good Health: Does It Matter? Conceptualization, Measurement and Consequences of Health Regulatory Focus"

Co-author:  Adilson Borges and Pierrick Gomez

Accepted at: Journal of Consumer Psychology

March 2013

 

This research presents a new scale, the health regulatory focus scale, which measures an individual’s tendency to use promotion (approach) or prevention (avoidance) strategies in the pursuit of health goals. We conducted five studies in France to develop the scale which is made up of two subscales for prevention and promotion. We also tested the scale’s psychometric properties and demonstrated its two-factor dimensionality, internal and test-retest reliability, and convergent, nomological, predictive and discriminant validity. The health subscales showed good predictive validity in that they correlated with health behaviors better than the general regulatory focus subscales. For instance, health promotion focus predicted dentist visits while general promotion focus did not, and health prevention focus predicted use of prescription and over-the-counter drugs while general prevention focus did not. Also as expected, general prevention focus predicted avoidance of risky vacation behaviors while health prevention focus did not. The health subscales either did not correlate or correlated weakly with positive and negative affectivity and general risk aversion indicating good discriminant validity. The one-year test-retest reliabilities were adequate for both subscales.

 

 


 

Professor Alladi Venkatesh

Title: "Dynamic Use Diffusion Model in a Cross-National Context: A Comparative Study of the U.S., Sweden and India"

Co-author:  Steven Chen (Ph.D. Alumnus), Erik Kruse, and Eric Shih (Ph.D. Alumnus)

Accepted at: Journal of Product Innovation Management

February 2013

 

This study proposes a model of dynamic use diffusion that serves as a basis for investigating post-adoption technology usage behavior.  Dynamic use diffusion measures the extent to which technology usage has evolved since the time of adoption.  Herein, antecedents and consequences of dynamic use diffusion are investigated.  A large-scale, random sample survey was conducted in the U.S., Sweden and India on the use of Internet and computing technology.  The survey results suggest that while the antecedents of dynamic use diffusion are similar across the three countries, the consequences are somewhat different for India.  These differences can be attributed to the national cultural differences of India compared to the U.S. and Sweden with regard to power-distance beliefs.

 

Professor Alladi Venkatesh

Title: "Design Orientation: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Design Thinking and Action"

Co-author:  Steven Chen (Ph.D. Alumnus), Theresa Digerfeldt-Mansson, and Frederic F. Brunel

Accepted at: Marketing Theory

February 2013

 

The notion of design thinking or ‘design as a state-of-mind’ and its articulation through design orientation implies that true innovation is a company-wide phenomenon and cannot be left to single individuals as a marginalized function within a company. Many innovative companies try to integrate technical performance with an aesthetic vision – which is not to be confused with style – as the driving force of the organization. Based on field work involving Swedish design companies, we provide empirical insights and theoretical propositions that cover various aspects of design innovation and orientation.

 


 

Professor Imran Currim

Title: "What Drives Managerial Use of Marketing and Financial Metrics and Does Metric Use Impact Marketing Mix performance?"

Co-author:  Ofer Mintz (Ph.D. Alumnus)

Accepted at: Journal of Marketing

November 2012

 

To increase marketing’s accountability, JM, MSI, and ISBM have advocated development of marketing metrics and linking marketing mix activities with financial metrics. While progress has been made, less attention has been paid to what drives managerial use of marketing and financial metrics and whether metric use is associated with marketing mix performance. A conceptual model is proposed which links firm strategy, metric orientation, type of marketing mix activity, and managerial, firm, and environmental characteristics to marketing and financial metric use which in turn are linked to performance of marketing mix activities. An analysis of 1,287 marketing mix activities reported by 439 U.S. managers reveals that firm strategy, metric orientation, type of marketing mix activity, and firm and environmental characteristics are more useful than managerial characteristics in explaining use of marketing and financial metrics and use of metrics is positively associated with marketing mix performance. Results allow identification of conditions under which managers use less metrics and how metric use can be increased to improve marketing mix performance. 

 


  

Professor Sreya Kolay

Title: "Contract Design with a Dominant Retailer and a Competitive Fringe"

Co-author:  Greg Shaffer

Accepted at: Management Science

October 2012

 

Channel coordination has been a major focus of the literature on vertical contracting in distribution channels. Early work in this area (for example, Jeuland and Shugan (1983) and Moorthy (1987)) suggested the equivalence of two commonly observed contracts, two-part pricing and quantity discounts, in terms of both coordinating the channel and dividing the surplus between an upstream manufacturer and a downstream retailer. Since then, various papers have suggested that this equivalence need not extend to settings in which downstream retailers compete. We examine the channel coordination problem in a market characterized by a dominant retailer and a competitive fringe of price–taking retailers. This is an important market structure to consider because of the increasing attention given to dominant retailers, such as Walmart, in both the popular media and in policy circles. In this market setting, we show that under some general conditions, quantity discounts and two-part tariffs are indeed equivalent as mechanisms for channel coordination. We consider a setting in which the manufacturer can make discriminatory offers to downstream retailers, and another setting in which the manufacturer must offer the same menu of pricing options to downstream retailers. We show that the upstream manufacturer’s profit in both settings is independent of whether quantity discounts or two-part pricing schemes are used. One implication of this finding is that the manufacturer’s choice of contract design may simply turn on which one is easier to implement.

 


  

Professor Connie Pechmann

Title: "Introduction to the Special Issue on Transformative Consumer Research: Developing Theory to Mobilize Efforts that Improve Consumer and Societal Well-Being"

Co-author:  Brennan Davis (Ph.D. Alumnus)

Accepted at: Journal of Business Research

July 2012

 

The third biennial Transformative Consumer Research Conference at Baylor University in June 2011 encouraged consumer researchers from around the world to address some of the world’s most pressing social and economic problems. Researchers discussed with conceptual rigor nine substantive areas: Addiction; Food for Thought; Innovative Research Methods; Materialism; Youth, Risk and Consumption; Multicultural Marketplaces; Poverty and Subsistence Marketplaces; Sustainable Products; and Transformative Services Research. This introductory paper summarizes the contributions of the post-conference articles on these nine areas that appear in this special issue, and it highlights the importance of conducting consumer research to obtain theoretically-grounded findings that offer practical solutions to serious human problems.

 


 

Professor Connie Pechmann

Title: "Policy and Research Related to Consumer Rebates: A Comprehensive Review"

Co-author:  Tim Slik

Accepted at: Journal of Public Policy and Marketing

July 2012

 

This paper presents the first comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of consumer rebates that includes federal regulations, state laws and academic research. It discussed four topics that have been the foci of consumer concerns and policy reform. These topics relate to rebate advertising, rebate redemption disclosures, rebate redemption processes, and rebate payment processes. With respect to each of these four topics, federal guidelines for rebates are identified by reviewing the 18 FTC rebate-related complaints and the 18 associated consent decrees. Also 15 rebate laws from 11 U.S. states are discussed, 7 of which were enacted since 2007. In addition, academic research related to rebates from diverse literatures including marketing, consumer behavior, psychology, and economics is reviewed and research gaps are identified. This information should help policy-makers evaluate rebate policies to assess if the policies are evidence based, and it should help academics identify unanswered research questions that are important to policy makers.

 


 

Professor Connie Pechmann

Title: "Trends in the Use and Advertising of Discount Versus Premium Snuff"

Co-author:  David Timberlake

Accepted at: Nicotine and Tobacco Research

June 2012

 

Introduction:  The Conwood Company, a major producer of discount moist snuff, was awarded a $1 billion antitrust settlement in the year 2000 against its leading competitor, the U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company. The objective of this study was to examine the trends in use and advertising of discount versus premium snuff since the Conwood settlement, a topic seldom addressed in the tobacco control literature.
Methods:  Two sources of data were analyzed in 2011: 1) male snuff users from the 2002-2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=13,172), and 2) total advertisements of moist snuff from over 350 consumer magazines dated 2005-2009 (N=861). For the survey data, demographic and tobacco-related measures were assessed as predictors of use of discount versus premium snuff in logistic regression models. For the advertising data, associations were examined between the snuff category and nicotine content, magazine youth readership and year of magazine publication.
Results:  The prevalence of discount and premium snuff use among males increased and decreased, respectively, from 2002 to 2009. Significant predictors of using discount versus premium snuff were being an adolescent, being an African-American, being a current or former smoker, living in a less populated region of the country, and using snuff frequently. Discount snuff advertising was associated with publication in magazines with a high youth readership.
Conclusions:  Discount snuff has grown in popularity among male adolescents who have been a target of advertising. The tobacco’s cheap price and high nicotine content pose a public health problem because of the potential for long-term tobacco use and dependence.

 

 


 

 

Professor Imran Currim
Title: “You Get What You Pay For: The Effect of Top Executives' Compensation on Advertising and R&D Spending Decisions and Stock Market Return”
Co-authors:  Jooseop Lim (Ph.D. alumnus) and Joung Kim

Accepted at: Journal of Marketing
April 2012

 

Although there is literature on how top executives’ compensation influences general management decisions, relatively little is known about whether and how compensation influences advertising and R&D spending decisions. This study addresses two questions. First, whether there is an incentive effect of long versus short-term compensation on advertising and R&D spending, and second, whether there is a mediation effect of advertising and R&D spending on the relationship between long versus short-term compensation and stock market return. These questions are addressed based on a combination of ExecuComp, Compustat, and CRSP data on 842 firms during 1993-2005. An increase in the equity-to-bonus compensation ratio is found to be positively associated with an increase in advertising and R&D spending as a share of sales. Advertising and R&D spending as a share of sales is also found to mediate the effect of equity-to-bonus ratio on stock market return. The authors discuss implications for top management seeking to mitigate myopic management of resources by employing compensation to incentivize a longer-term orientation for advertising and R&D spending to improve stock return.


  


   

Professor Imran Currim
Title: “Reference Dependence and Conjoint Analysis”
Co-authors:  Brennan Davis (Ph.D. alumnus) and Rakesh K Sarin

Accepted at: Review of Marketing Science
April 2012

 

Although there is enormous evidence that reference levels influence preferences, conjoint models, one of the most successful marketing research tools, assume that preferences depend on the absolute levels of attributes. In this paper we investigate the relevance of reference effects in two settings, compositional or self-explicated models in experimental studies 1 and 2, and decompositional or choice-based models in experimental study 3. In particular, we introduce a simple modification of the traditional self-explicated conjoint model which permits dependence of preference on reference levels. By eliciting gains and losses from expectations the model is adaptable to changes in respondents’ reference points, which the traditional model is incapable of. Reference options are found to clearly affect subject choices in studies 1 and 2. In addition, the reference dependent self-explicated model is found to offer useful predictions when reference points are manipulated in study 1, and improve on predictions of its traditional counterpart when reference points are measured in study 2. In contrast, in study 3, the choice-based model’s diagnostics and predictions are found to be robust to reference point manipulations. Taken together, these results suggest that the self-explicated model is more suited than the choice-based model to understanding and predicting how respondents make judgments relative to reference points because reference points and gains and losses from reference levels are more salient in the self-explicated model. We discuss implications for managers constructing conjoint models in product-market settings wherein reference points are changing due to new product introductions or marketing efforts.


  


   
Professor Cornelia Pechmann
Title: “What Do These Clinical Trial Results Mean? How Product Efficacy Judgments are Affected by Data Partitioning, Framing, and Quantification”
Co-author:  Dipayan Biswas
(Ph.D. alumnus)
Accepted at: Journal of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
December 2011

Data from clinical trials, and other product efficacy data, are often presented in partitioned or aggregated formats, as successes or failures, and as frequencies or percentages. We examine how such different data presentation formats influence product efficacy judgments. The results of four experiments indicate that partitioned (versus aggregated) frequency data affects processing ability and causes frame-induced confirmatory belief updating. As a result, success-framed, partitioned, frequency data enhance product efficacy judgments, choice, and judgment accuracy, while failure-framed, partitioned, frequency data have the opposite effects. However, percentage data or high data variance attenuate these effects.

  


    

Professor Mary Gilly
Title: “It Don't Come Easy: Overcoming Obstacles to Technology Use within a Resistant Consumer Group”
Co-authors:  Mary Woflinbarger Celsi and Hope Jensen Schau
(Ph.D. Program alumnae)
Accepted at: Journal of Consumer Affairs
November 2011

To identify ways in which resistance can be overcome and technology’s potential realized, we study acceptance and use of a specific technology, the internet, by a specific resistant group, older consumers. Using interviews and a survey of consumers who are over 65 years old, we discover that curiosity and proactive coping drive technology optimism, which then predicts adoption and heavier usage. Motivated seniors with technology discomfort get help to adopt and continued assistance to learn usage repertoires. Surprisingly, technology discomfort is positively rather than negatively related to usage enthusiasm. Implications are drawn for consumer groups resistant to technology.

  


   

Professor Mary Gilly
Title: “Dibs!: Consumer Territorial Behaviors”
Co-author:  Merlyn Griffiths
(Ph.D. Program alumna)
Accepted at: Journal of Service Research
November 2011

Café servicescapes are often created to reflect homey characteristics, expecting consumers to relax, mingle, and consume their purchases. Yet consumers co-opt the space, often using it as an extension of the workplace or home. In pursuit of undistracted privacy, consumers engage in territorial behaviors that communicate to other consumers that intrusion is not welcome. Territorial behavior can have negative implications for some service establishments. In a multi-method investigation of consumer territorial behavior, we find that purchase or even use of an item with the café logo is believed by many to give consumers territorial rights, decreasing turnover and discouraging other consumers who would like to sit and consume café products. Employees are faced with mediating territorial disputes. Understanding and dealing with consumer territorial behavior will lead to better servicescape design, less inter-consumer conflict, and smoother organizational processes.

  


   

Professor Mary Gilly
Title: “So Whaddya Think? Consumers Create Ads and Other Consumers Critique Them”
Co-author: 
Burcak Ertimur (Ph.D. Program alumna)
Accepted at: Journal of Interactive Marketing
November 2011

With the availability of online creative tools, consumers create ad-like communications on their own or in response to company contests. These consumer-generated ads (CGA) are like word-of-mouth (WOM) in that they are consumer-to-consumer communications, yet they have the look and feel of traditional advertising. We examine consumer responses to both contest and unsolicited CGAs and company ads using data gathered from consumers via netnography and depth interviews. Content analysis is used to compare the three ad types and reveals that the contest rules frame CGA so that they resemble company ads while unsolicited CGAs differ from both ad types. Findings show that consumers respond to both types of CGA by engaging with the ad rather than the brand, much like an ad critic, while company ads elicit brand associations. Unsolicited CGA are seen as authentic, but not credible, while contest ads are seen as credible, but not authentic, revealing a boundary condition to the conventional view that authenticity leads to credibility.

  


  

Professor Cornelia Pechmann and Ph.D. Student Jesse Catlin
Title: “The Influence of Need for Cognition and Principle Display Panel Factors on Over-the-Counter Drug Facts Label Comprehension”
Co-authors:  Eric P. Brass
Accepted at: Health Communication

May 2011

Nearly all work aimed at optimizing the ability of labeling to communicate over-the-counter (OTC) drug information has focused on back of the package characteristics, such as the Drug Facts label.  The effects of front of the package, or principle display panel (PDP) factors, have largely been neglected by researchers.  Similarly, heterogeneity in consumers’ approach to new information has received scant attention in the context of OTC drugs.  This preliminary study tested the hypothesis that display of a drug’s brand name on the PDP and individuals’ need for cognition influence comprehension of Drug Facts label information.  University students (n = 212) that had experienced heartburn but not used the drug class being studied constituted the primary analysis cohort. Students were randomly assigned to review one of two PDPs (brand name or generic), followed by a Drug Facts label and a series of questions related to selection and usage of the drug.  Participants with low need for cognition were influenced by the brand name PDP, as those exposed to a PDP featuring a brand (vs. generic) spent less time reading the Drug Facts label and demonstrated lower comprehension of the label information on proper drug selection.  These findings suggest that further research is needed to understand the impact of PDP contents and cognitive characteristics of consumers on the communication of OTC drug information.  Healthcare providers should consider communication strategies that account for the challenges patients face in using OTC drugs properly.

  


 

PhD Student Jesse Catlin
Title: “Transforming Consumer Health”
Co-authors:  Debra L. Scammon, Punam Anand Keller, Pia A. Albinsson, Shalini Bahl, Kelly L. Haws, Jeremy Kees, Tracey King, Elizabeth Gelfand Miller, Ann M. Mirabito, Paula C. Peter, and Robert M. Schindler
Accepted at: Journal of Public Policy and Marketing

May 2011


The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA 2010) is intended to transform our healthcare system. Its success will require the transformation of consumers’ views about health and their willingness to participate in healthy behaviors. Focusing on three barriers to consumers’ engagement in healthy behaviors, we review the research literature and suggest needed future research. Using a social marketing perspective, we suggest actions for healthcare providers, marketers, and policy makers to help overcome these barriers.  

 


 

Professors Christopher S. Carpenter and Cornelia Pechmann

Title: "Exposure to Above the Influence Antidrug Advertisements and Adolescent Marijuana Use in the United States, 2006–2008"

Forthcoming in American Journal of Public Health

 

We examined the relationship between exposure to the Above the Influence antidrug campaign in 210 US media markets and adolescent marijuana and alcohol use in 2006 to 2008. We analyzed monthly advertising exposure (targeted rating points data from the Office of National Drug Control Policy and drug use data from the Monitoring the Future study. We estimated multivariate logistic regression models of marijuana use for students in grades 8, 10, and 12, with controls for individual, family, and media market characteristics and year and regional fixed effects. For eighth-grade adolescent girls, greater exposure to antidrug advertisements was associated with lower rates of past-month marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.52, 0.87) and lower rates of lifetime marijuana use (AOR=0.76; 95% CI=0.62, 0.93), but not alcohol use (AOR=1.00; 95% CI=0.84, 1.19). Associations were not significant for adolescent boys or for students in grades 10 and 12. Thus, antidrug advertising may be an effective way to dissuade eighth grade adolescent girls from initiating marijuana use.

  


 

Professor Cornelia Pechmann

Title: "A Content Analysis of Camel Snus Advertisements in Print Media"

Co-authors: David S. Timberlake, Sarah Y. Tran, and Vanessa Au

Forthcoming in Nicotine and Tobacco Research

 

Researchers have questioned whether the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company is marketing Camel Snus as a product for non-tobacco users, smokeless-tobacco users or cigarette smokers. The objective of this study was to examine advertisements of Camel Snus in print media to determine the most likely audience of intent. A content analysis was conducted among Camel Snus advertisements printed in newspaper and consumer magazines between July, 2007 and August, 2010.  The advertisements (n=83 distinct; N=458 total) were identified from a comprehensive search of a proprietary database maintained by TNS Media Intelligence. Results indicated that all advertisements, published between July, 2007 and September, 2009, were intended to promote a tobacco product for cigarette smokers.  A shift in marketing strategy occurred from October, 2009 to the present time with publication of the "Break Free" magazine advertisements, characterized by an ambiguous message that could conceivably appeal to any group, including non-tobacco users (e.g., adolescents), smokeless-tobacco users and/or cigarette smokers.  However, an examination of the consumer magazines advertising Camel Snus indicated a demographically diverse readership in terms of gender, age and education, suggesting that the advertisements are less likely to be intended for smokeless-tobacco users.

  


 

Professor Rajeev Tyagi
Title: “Benefits of Competitive Upward Channel Decentralization”
Co-authors: Yunchuan Liu
Accepted at: Management Science

January 2011

Upward channel decentralization occurs when firms choose to not manufacture products by themselves, and procure products from upstream suppliers. One of the most commonly given rationales for a firm choosing upward channel decentralization is that an upstream supplier may have a production-cost or expertise advantage over this firm.   This paper provides a strategic reason for why upward channel decentralization can benefit firms even when the upstream suppliers do not have any production-cost or expertise advantage. We show that when product positioning/design is endogenous, upward channel decentralization can incentivize competitive firms to differentiate their products more. With more differentiated products, price competition is softened at the downstream level, benefiting the focal downstream firms. We also show how, in this framework where product design decisions are not independent of the channel design decisions, decentralized channels can outperform centralized channels from total-channel-profit perspective. As a secondary contribution, we use this framework to show a new benefit to manufacturers selling through downstream retailers rather than directly. Finally, we examine the implications of our theory for consumer and social welfare, and draw managerial implications.

  


 

Professor Loraine Lau
Title: “The Effect of Schadenfreude on Choice of Conventional versus Unconventional Options”
Co-authors: Thomas Kramer and Ogze Yucel
Accepted at: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

December 2010

Others’ choices that turn out badly often elicit schadenfreude; that is, feelings of malicious joy about the misfortunes of others. We examine the impact of experiencing schadenfreude when choosing between conventional and unconventional options. Results show that individuals are relatively more likely to choose compromise options and safe options when experiencing schadenfreude, in comparison to happiness and to sadness. In support of an affect-as-information mechanism underlying this effect, the influence of schadenfreude on choice is limited to situations in which decision-makers are unaware of the source of their affect. Our last study demonstrates that individuals interpret schadenfreude as information regarding which option they should choose: its experience heightens anticipation of unfavorable outcomes of their own choices. We end with a discussion of the theoretical and organizational implications of our research.

  


 

Professor Loraine Lau-Gesk
Title: “Aging Effects on Mixed Affective Experiences”
Co-authors: Aimee Drolet and Carol Scott
Accepted at: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making

November 2010

Research on preferences among sequences of mixed affective events has mostly used young adults as participants. Given differences due to aging in people’s ability to regulate emotion, one could expect differences due to aging in preferences for different sequences. Study 1 demonstrated age-related differences in how older adults (age 65 and older) versus young adults (age 18-25) choose to order mixed affective events that will occur over time. The tendency to choose sequences in which the final event is positive was greater among older adults versus young adults. And, more so than young adults, older adults preferred that the positive and negative events in a sequence be separated in time by a neutral event. Studies 2-3 investigated age-related differences in overall retrospective evaluations of given sequences of mixed affective events. In contrast to young adults, older adults’ retrospective evaluations were not affected by: 1) whether the final trend of the sequence improved monotonically; 2) whether the last event in the sequence was positive; or 3) the temporal proximity of positive and negative events in the sequence. Results of Study 3 suggest that these age-related differences are due to differences in older (vs. young) adults’ ability to regulate emotion.

  


 

Professor Cornelia Pechmann
Title: “Smoking in Movies”
Accepted at: Health Communication

November 2010

Health communication research can and often does inform and advance public policy. This is a case study about smoking in movies that illustrates the impact that academic research can have.

  


 

Professor Cornelia Pechmann
Title: “The Opportunities and Challenges of School-Based Research for Social Marketers”
Co-authors: Kathleen Kelly and Ellen Thomas Reibling
Accepted at: Social Marketing Quarterly

November 2010

Children and adolescents are often the primary target audience of social marketing campaigns and interventions. The prevalence of youth directed campaigns has risen dramatically in the past decade, in part due to the increase in children’s health problems (e.g., obesity, asthma, substance use). As a result, researchers increasingly approach schools and ask them to be collaborative partners in helping them to evaluate social marketing campaigns prior to more widespread dissemination. Just as social marketers must understand the facilitators and barriers to behavior change in their primary target audience(s), schools must also be thoroughly understood and supported for collaborative success. While schools are a convenient and often effective channel for conducting youth-based social marketing evaluation research, partnering with schools can present some unique challenges. This article describes some of the issues social marketers should consider when working with schools on evaluation research.

  


 

Professor Alladi Venkatesh
Title: “The Aesthetics of Luxury Fashion and Identify Formation”
Co-authors: A. Joy, J.F. Sherry and J. Deschenes
Accepted at: Journal of Consumer Psychology

November 2010

In this paper we theorize and empirically investigate how consumers’ attitudes and preferences relating to physical appearance are linked to their perceptions of the aesthetics of fashion.  Our theoretical work is informed by three streams of research: aesthetics of production, aesthetics of reception and aesthetic labor.  These three converge to illuminate our study.  Using the ZMET technique, we uncover four themes: fashion as wearable art, body and self-identity, bodily appearance and high fashion brands, and aesthetic labor through fashion.  Our focus on the aesthetics of fashion and identity formation provides a segue into the broader discussion of the growing importance of aesthetics in understanding consumer behavior. 

  


 

Professor Alladi Venkatesh
Title: “Mobile Marketing in the Retailing Environment: Current Insights and Future Research Avenues”
Co-authors: V. Shankar, C. Hofacker and P. Naik
Accepted at: Journal of Interactive Marketing

November 2010

Mobile marketing, which involves two- or multi-way communication and promotion of an offer between a firm and its customers using the mobile, a term that refers to the mobile medium, device, channel, or technology, is growing in importance in the retailing environment. It has the potential to change the paradigm of retailing from one based on consumers entering the retailing environment to retailers entering the consumer's environment through anytime, anywhere mobile devices. We propose a conceptual framework that comprises three key entities: the consumer, the mobile, and the retailer. The framework addresses key related issues such as mobile consumer activities, mobile consumer segments, mobile adoption enablers and inhibitors, key mobile properties, key retailer mobile marketing activities and competition.  We also address successful retailer mobile marketing strategies, identify the customer-related and organizational challenges on this topic, and outline future research scenarios and avenues related to these issues.

  


 

Professor Imran Currim
Title: “An empirical comparison of methods for clustering problems: Are there benefits from having a statistical model?”
Co-authors: Rick L. Andrews, Michael J. Brusco, Brennan Davis (Ph.D. Alumnus)
Accepted at: Review of Marketing Science

August 2010
 
This study compares the effectiveness of statistical model-based (MB) clustering methods with that of more commonly used non model-based (NMB) procedures in three important contexts: the traditional cluster analysis problem in which a set of consumer descriptor variables is used to form segments; clusterwise regression, in which response parameters from a regression form the basis of segments, and bicriterion clustering problems, which arise when managers wish to form market segments jointly on the basis of a set of descriptors and response parameters from a regression. If the manager’s primary objective is to forecast responses for segments of holdout consumers for whom only descriptors are available, NMB procedures perform better than MB procedures. However, if it is important to understand the true segmentation structure in a market as well as the nature of the regression relationships within segments, the MB procedure is clearly preferred. Bicriterion segmentation methods are shown to be advantageous when there is at least some concordance between segments derived from different bases. Insights from the simulation study shed new light on a social marketing application in the area of segmenting and profiling overweight youths.
 


 

Professor Mary Gilly
Title: “Hubble Bubble Trouble: The Need for Education and Regulation of Hookah Smoking”
Co-authors: Merlyn Griffiths (Ph.D. Alumnus) and Tracy Harmon
Accepted at: Journal of Public Policy and Marketing

August 2010

 

A Middle Eastern tradition, hookah smoking involves burning flavored tobacco heated by charcoal, creating smoke which is filtered through water and ingested through the mouth using a hose. Hookah lounges are increasingly locating around college campuses in the U.S. and websites offering hookah paraphernalia target American high school and college students. In two studies involving interviews with college-age hookah smokers and analysis of website marketing practices, the authors investigate consumer beliefs and attitudes toward hookah smoking and the way it is portrayed online. Findings indicate this is a social phenomenon, with young people introducing peers to the practice and websites promoting shared consumption experiences. Contrary to medical evidence, young people believe smoking sweetened tobacco through a hookah is non-addictive and safer than cigarettes. Hookah lounges often are exempt from age restriction laws as many double as cafés and other eating establishments. Traditional tobacco warnings are not seen in lounges or on websites. The findings highlight potential health dangers of hookah smoking, the need for education regarding this practice, and demonstrate that regulatory oversight is needed.

  


 

Professor Imran Currim
Title: “A Comparison of Sales Response Predictions from Demand Models Applied to Store-Level vs. Panel Data”
Co-authors: R. Andrews and P. Leeflang
Accepted at: Journal of Business and Economic Statistics

February 2010

In order to generate sales promotion response predictions, marketing analysts estimate demand models using either disaggregated (consumer-level) or aggregated (store-level) scanner data. Comparison of predictions from these demand models is complicated by the fact that models may accommodate different forms of consumer heterogeneity depending on the level of data aggregation. This study shows via simulation that demand models with various heterogeneity specifications do not produce more accurate sales response predictions than a homogeneous demand model applied to store-level data, with one major exception: a random coefficients model designed to capture within-store heterogeneity using store-level data produced significantly more accurate sales response predictions (as well as better fit) compared to other model specifications. An empirical application to the paper towel product category adds additional insights.

  


 

Professor Alladi Venkatesh
Title: “Perceiving Images and Telling Tales: A Visual and Verbal Analysis of the Meaning of the Internet”
Co-authors: Annamma Joy, John Sherry Jr., and Jonathan Deschenes
Accepted at: Journal of Consumer Psychology

October 2009

This paper uses visual and verbal analysis to delve into the multi-faceted ways in which individuals construct their own meanings and shape their own experiences with the Internet. We build on the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique, and the principles of visual rhetoric to show how perceptual processes affect picture choices, and how these choices contribute to the narrative imagination. Numerous perceptual principles [abstraction, concept formation, perceptual problem solving, constancy, closure, symmetry and balance] are identified in the choice and organization of visual images. The argument we make is that images and words (visual and textual processes) provide deeper insights into our understanding of consumer online experiences.

 

  


 

Professor Imran Currim
Title: “Multi-stage purchase decision models:  Accommodating response heterogeneity, common demand shocks, and endogeneity using disaggregate data”
Co-authors: Rick L. Andrews
Accepted at: International Journal of Research in Marketing

September 2009


The most comprehensive models of purchase behavior for frequently purchased supermarket items explain households’ purchase incidence decisions (whether to buy), brand choice decisions (what to buy), and purchase quantity decisions (how much to buy).  In this study we develop a three-stage purchase incidence/brand choice/purchase quantity model for household-level data in which all three stages are specified with (i) random coefficients distributions for model covariates and (ii) random effects distributions to account for unobserved factors affecting demand (known as common demand shocks), while also (iii) controlling for the effects of endogeneity in prices. Compared to current state-of-the-art models for multi-stage purchase decisions, the results show improvements in fit and forecasting accuracy when purchase behaviors are modeled with all of these components in combination. Perhaps more importantly, when common demand shocks are ignored, substantial differences in parameter estimates and diagnostic information about consumer behavior are likely (median differences in parameter estimates are 10% and 20% in two product categories), which impact managerial deliberations about price and promotion policies. Further, failure to account for common demand shocks affect the mean and variance of random coefficients distributions in unpredictable directions, which could produce results that encourage managers to pursue inappropriate and costly micro-level product marketing strategies.

  


 

Professor Imran Currim
Title: “Amalgamation of Partitions from Multiple Segmentation Bases: A Comparison of Non-Model-Based and Model-Based Methods”
Co-authors: Rick L. Andrews and Michael J. Brusco
Accepted at: European Journal of Operational Research

September 2009

The segmentation of customers on multiple bases is a pervasive problem in marketing research. For example, segmentation service providers partition customers using a variety of demographic and psychographic characteristics, as well as an array of consumption attributes such as brand loyalty, switching behavior, and product/service satisfaction. Unfortunately, the partitions obtained from multiple bases are often not in good agreement with one another, making effective segmentation a difficult managerial task. Therefore, the construction of segments using multiple independent bases often results in a need to establish a partition that represents an amalgamation or consensus of the individual partitions. In this paper, we compare three methods for finding a consensus partition. The first two methods are deterministic, do not use a statistical model in the development of the consensus partition, and are representative of methods used in commercial settings, whereas the third method is based on finite mixture modeling. In a large scale simulation experiment the finite mixture model yielded better average recovery of holdout (validation) partitions than its non-model-based competitors. This result calls for important changes in the current practice of segmentation service providers that group customers for a variety of managerial goals related to the design and marketing of products and services.

 

  


 

Professor Mary Gilly
Title: “Employees as Internal Audience: How Advertising Affects Employees’ Customer Focus”
Co-authors: Mary Wolfinbarger
Accepted at: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

September 2009

Ad campaigns target consumers with information about the company, its products, and sometimes its employees. Ads also reach the organization’s employees and may contain information useful to employees in meeting customer needs. Results from a study involving a high-tech firm indicate that when employees believe ads are effective and value congruent, their customer focus increases. Pride completely mediates the effects of value congruence and effectiveness on customer focus. Organizational identification of employees generally results in a more favorable reaction to ads. A second study involving a regional health facility replicates and extends these findings to include employee portrayal accuracy when employees are featured in ads. Employee portrayal accuracy affects promise accuracy, effectiveness and value-congruence. In addition, employee portrayal accuracy has a direct effect on customer focus.

 

  


 

Professor Loraine Lau-Gesk
Title: “Emotional Persuasion: When the Valence Versus the Resource Demands of Emotions Influence Consumers’ Attitudes”
Co-authors: Joan Meyers-Levy                                                           
Accepted at: Journal of Consumer Research

May 2009
 
Can properties of emotions other than valence influence consumers’ responses to emotional ads? If so, when? We show that consumers’ processing motivation moderates whether their attitudes are based on either the valence of or the resource demands imposed by the featured emotion. When motivation is low, consumers respond more favorably to positively versus negatively-valenced emotional ads. But when motivation is high, attitudes are most favorable when the magnitude of allocated resources matches that required to process the ad. Three studies identify three distinct properties of emotions (univalence, purity, and self-consciousness) that can influence the resource demands of an ad.

  


 

Professor Loraine Lau-Gesk
Title: “The Interactive Effects of Duality Expertise and Coping Frames on Responses to Ambivalent Messages”
Co-authors: Kramer, Thomas and CY Chiu Accepted at: Journal of Consumer Psychology

May 2009

We examine the interactive effects of biculturals’ duality expertise and externally provided coping resources on their attitudinal responses to ambivalence. Three studies reveal that ambivalence is associated with greater discomfort for biculturals more (vs. less) conflicted about their cultural duality and with limited exposure to accessing their two cultural knowledge systems simultaneously. Among biculturals with greater feelings of conflictedness about their cultural duality and more limited simultaneous exposure, the availability of a coping frame significantly lowers their negative evaluation of a message that elicits ambivalence. This appears to be the case because coping frames help these biculturals resolve the discomfort associated with ambivalence. In contrast, provision of a coping frame does not impact attitudinal responses to ambivalence of biculturals who feel less conflicted about their cultural duality and those with greater simultaneous exposure to both cultures. 

  


 

Professor Mary Gilly
Title: “Consumer Identity Renaissance: The Resurgence of Identity Inspired Consumption in Retirement”
Accepted at: Journal of Consumer Research
Co-authors: Hope Jensen Schau and Mary Wolfinbarger (PhD program alums)

January 2009
 
Using multi-method data, we investigate retirement as a life stage centered on consumption, where cultural scripts are particularly contested and in flux, and where we witness an increase in breadth and depth of identity-related consumption which we term consumer identity renaissance. While prior research on older consumers focuses on corporeal and cognitive decline and its impact on individual decision making situations, our attention is drawn to the competency and growth potential of those who have exited their formal productive stage, and privilege consumption as a means to create and enact identity. Contrary to the received view of older consumers simply reviewing and integrating their already developed identities, we find retirement can be a time of extensive identity work with multiple revived and emergent inspirations weaving across all time orientations (past, present and future) and involving intricate consumption enactments.

  


 

Professors Mary Gilly and John Graham
Title: “Gender Differences in the Pricing of Professional Services: Implications for Income and Customer Relationships”
Accepted at: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
Co-authors: William Cron and John Slocum

January 2009
    
This study extends our understanding of the effects of gender on both pricing behavior and owner income by examining both relationships in an experimental simulation involving owners of veterinary practices. Consistent with prior research, women owners are found to employ “compassionate pricing” more than men, even when the same services are offered. The process by which gender influences price, however is found to depend in part on one’s relationship orientation. Specifically, women are found to have a higher relationship orientation than men and relationship orientation is found to directly bias women’s transactional pricing towards more compassionate pricing. The relationship between role orientation, pricing, and income, however, is rather complex. While lower prices have a negative relationship with owner income, relationship orientation is found to have a positive direct influence on income. As a result, the net influence of relationship orientation on income is found to be both negative, due to lower prices, and positive, due possibly to the resulting customer loyalty.

 

  


 

Professor Cornelia Pechmann
Title: “Effects of Indirectly and Directly Competing Reference Group Messages and Persuasion Knowledge: Implications for Educational Placements”            
Accepted at: Journal of Marketing Research  
Co-author(s): Liangyan Wang (doctoral alumnus)

November 2008
 
Two experiments were conducted among 2,850 adolescents where versions of a real television program with an antismoking educational placement were tested against a control. Educational placements increasingly replace public service announcements but their efficacy is questioned because they invariably contain mixed messages. In an antismoking program, there are typically three indirectly competing messages about referents: smokers are attractive and prevalent but disapproved of. Experiment 1 tested program versions with these messages and found that the disapproval message dominated and elicited negative smoker thoughts and beliefs, despite an otherwise potent smoker attractiveness message. Experiment 2 found corresponding effects on intent but showed that adding a directly competing smoker approval message nullified the effects. Further, Experiment 2 tested an educational epilogue that was designed to reinforce the disapproval message but instead it boomeranged among smokers. For smokers, the educational placement was counterattitudinal. Thus when the epilogue disclosed the placement and evoked persuasion knowledge, smokers actually generated more positive smoker beliefs and intent. The findings contribute to the literatures on competing referent messages, disclosures and persuasion knowledge.

 

  


  
Professor Alladi Venkatesh
Title: “Digital Home Technologies and Transformation of Household”
Accepted at: Information Systems Frontiers  

November 2008
 
The basic issue I examine here is whether and how contemporary home life is being transformed with the arrival of new digital technologies. As new technologies diffuse into the home, new terminology has begun to emerge as, for example, in smart homes, home automation, digital home, digital living, networked home, home of the future, smart appliances and so on. To simplify the terminology, in this paper, I use the term “digital home technologies” and smart home technologies interchangeably to describe all of them. Although digital home technologies have developed in different directions because of the types of industry players involved, some common themes underlie these developments. They all seem to point to a great sense of anticipation that home life as we have understood in the past two or three decades will undergo some fundamental changes. It is claimed that some of the changes may be the result of advances at the technological frontier. Based on a twenty year trajectory of theoretical and empirical work, this paper will identify the triumphs and failures.

  


 

Professor Alladi Venkatesh
Title: “Using Lexical Semantic Analysis to Derive Online Brand Positions: An Application to Retail Marketing Research”
Accepted at: Journal of Retailing
Co-author(s): Praveen Aggarwal, Rajiv Vaidyanathan

November 2008
 
This paper provides an innovative approach to brand tracking in the context of online retail shopping by deriving meaning from the vast amount of information stored in online search engine databases. The method draws upon research in lexical text analysis and computational linguistics to gain insight into the structural schema of online brand positions. The paper proposes a robust yet simple-to-use method that managers can utilize to assess their brand’s positioning relative to that of their competitors’ in the online environment.