Seminars


The Beall Center brings scholars from across the globe to speak in research seminars highlighting the most current research on topics of innovation and entrepreneurship.

 


 

   

2014 Seminar Series

  • 01/09/2014- Constance E. Kampf
  • 02/14/2014-Michelle Graebner
  • 03/21/2014-Alladi Venkatesh

 

 

Seminar 1


January 9, 2014: Constance E Kampf

 

Location/Time: SB 111 11:00 am-12:30 pm

 

Speaker Bio: Constance Kampf is an Associate Professor at the Department of Business Communication, Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark. She is a member of the Center for Corporate Communication, and the Knowledge Communication research group. Her background is multidisciplinary, connecting management, rhetoric, linguistics and socio-technical design fields to look at interfaces between business and society. Her current focus is the negotiation of Corporate Social Responsibility. She is currently a member of the Association of Internet Researchers, the Academy of Management, and the IEEE. She is also the Assistant Editor in Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Professional Communications.

 

Seminar Topic: CSR Knowledge at the interface between business and society: Activists engaging publics and corporations through social and mobile media

 

Abstract: Basic assumptions about the nature of corporate-stakeholder relations for defining Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are coming into question with recent work, such as Ramaswamy’s (2008) call for de-centering the firm and democratizing the focus for defining and creating value, Strand & Freeman’s (2012) paper investigating the Scandinavian origins of stakeholder models demonstrating stakeholder models from the 1960s that blurred boundaries between corporations and society, and Werhane’s (2011) analysis of dynamic and de-centered stakeholder models. This talk looks at assumptions inherent in key stakeholder models and uses the social media activism cases to further develop those models for understanding corporate stakeholder relations in a globalized context influenced by social media. Understanding and listening to activism offers corporations a means of assessing their alignment with surrounding social contexts, and reflecting on their understanding of stakeholder-corporate relations from a perspective based in public awareness and concern about the consequences of their CSR strategies. Examining CSR from the outside-in challenges a corporate centered perspective on CSR. This talk takes a point of departure in efforts from activists to engage in a process of (re)defining CSR by communicating with corporations via social media. The value of an approach from activist point of view is to help corporations expand their understanding of CSR related issues by including CSR-focused communication from activists as a learning opportunity at the interface between business and society.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

 

Seminar 2

 

February 14, 2014: Melissa Graebner

 

Location/Time: SB 112, 12:00 pm-1:30 pm

 

Speaker Bio: Melissa Graebner, Associate Professor of Management and Associate Director at the Herb Kelleher Center for Entrepreneurship. She holds both MBA and Ph. D. degrees from Stanford University. Her research interests include coporate governance, entrepreneurship, mergers, and acquisitions and strategic decision making.

 

Abstract: The best of both worlds? Paradoxes of resource acquisition in a family-owned technology venture.

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

 

Seminar 3

 

May 2, 2014: Tyler Wry

 

Location/Time: SB 117, 12:00 pm-1:30 pm

 

Speaker Bio: Professor Tyler Wry, the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania studies the mixing of multiple meaning systems as a driver of innovation and entrepreneurship.  Examples include social enterprises that mix social and financial aims, startups that mix elements of science and technology, and technological systems comprising diverse actors and interests.  While recombination is endemic to innovation, this more extreme form of mixing exposes actors and organizations to complex pressures which highlight limitations in extant understandings of both meaning systems and creative action.  Focusing broadly on these issues, Tyler’s work has appeared (or is scheduled to appear) in outlets such as the Academy of Management Annals, the Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of Business Venturing, and Organization Science.  Early stage work has also been recognized with best paper and early career achievement awards by the Academy of Management, the Academy of International Business, and the European Group for Organization Studies. In his spare time, Tyler is an exhausted dad who likes to go for the occasional run.

 

Seminar Topic: Born to be Wild? Innovation Paths as Complex Adaptive Systems

 

Abstract: In this paper, we draw on insights from complexity theory to make predictions about how innovation trajectories develop in the absence of equilibrium. While there is a general consensus in the literature that innovation displays path dependent properties whereby current possibilities are shaped by past activities, extant studies have focused primarily on how this manifests in path-dependent lock-in around a clear and common trajectory.  We argue that this focus elides consideration of how innovation unfolds in more contingent and fluid contexts, while offering little insight into why components of a path become variously important for subsequent innovation.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

2012-2013 Seminar Series

 

  • 02/14/2013 - Alessandro Lomi
  • 03/15/2013 - Haiyang Li
  • 03/28/2013 - Greg R. Oldham
  • 05/02/2013 - Jennifer Mueller

 

 

Seminar 1

 

 

February 14th, 2013: Alessandro Lomi

 

Location/Time: SB111, 10:30 pm - 12:00 pm

 

Speaker Bio: Alessandro Lomi is a Professor in Organization Theory and Behavior in the Faculty of Economics at the University of Lugano (Switzerland). During the year 2012 he has been Visiting Research Fellow at Clare Hall, University of Cambridge (U.K.). In 2011 he was awarded a Banco Santander Cátedra de Excelencia (Chair of Excellence) at the Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain). Since 2008 he has been Conseiller a la Recherche in the Human and Social Sciences Division of the Conseil national de la recherche Suisse (Swiss NSF), where he currently serves as vice-Chairperson of the Interdisciplinary Research Commission. Since 2007 he has been Honorary Fellow in the School of Behavioral Science at the University of Melbourne (Australia). In 2008 he was Jemolo Research Fellow at Nuffield College, University of Oxford (U.K.). Between 2003 and 2006 he was Honorary Visiting Professor at the Cass Business School, City University (London). In 2002 he was NATO Senior Research Fellow at the Santa Fe Institute (New Mexico) where, in 2001, he had been Research Fellow in the program “Evolution of States and Markets” under the direction of Professor John Padgett (University of Chicago). In the less recent past he was a Full Professor in the faculty of Economics of the University of Bologna (Italy), an Assistant Professor at the London Business School (University of London, U.K.), a Visiting Professor at the Haas School of Business (University of California, Berkeley), a NATO Advanced Science Fellow at Syracuse University (New York), and a NATO-CNR (Italian NSF) Junior Research Fellow at New York University (New York, NY). In 1991 he received a PhD degree in Organization Theory from Cornell University (Ithaca, New York) under the direction of Profs. John Freeman and Michael Hannan. In October 2012 Alessandro Lomi was elected into Life Membership at Clare Hall College, University of Cambridge (U.K.)

 

Seminar Topic: The Network Dynamic of Absorptive Capacity:

Distinguishing Selection from Assimilation

 

Abstract: According to one vision of network evolution organizations are more likely to establish network ties with partners having similar operational experiences. A second vision suggests that interdependent organizations connected by network ties are more likely to assimilate each other’s knowledge and develop progressively more similar portfolios of internal activities. In this paper we reframe the notion of absorptive capacity as a micro-relational mechanism to investigate which one of these two visions best characterizes the co-evolution of inter-organizational networks and organizational structures in a regional community of health care organizations. We estimate newly developed stochastic actor-oriented models which specify how inter-organizational networks affect organizational decisions to change the portfolio of internal organizational activities by adding or abandoning clinical activities. At the same time, the model allows examination of how the common affiliation to internal activities affects decisions to change network ties defined in terms of patient sharing relations between partner hospitals. We find that inter-organizational network ties through which information and resources flow are more likely to be established and less likely to be dissolved between organizations sharing the same activities. We also find, however, that organizations linked by network ties are not significantly more likely to develop similar activities. Considered together these results suggest that absorptive capacity operates more strongly through social selection rather than social influence mechanisms activated by vicarious learning. We discuss some of the implications of the study for the evolution of inter-organizational fields and communities.

 

 

 

Seminar 2

 

 

March 15th, 2013: Haiyang Li

 

Location/Time: SB117, 2:00 pm - 3:30 pm

 

Speaker Bio: Dr. Haiyang Li is associate professor of strategic management and innovation at the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University. He earned a Bachelor and a Master in economics from Renmin (People’s) University of China and received a Ph.D. from City University of Hong Kong. Before joining Rice University, he was on the faculty of Department of Management at Texas A&M University.

 

Dr. Li’s research interests focus on technology entrepreneurship and innovation (particularly in China’s transition economy), strategic alliances and multinational firms’ innovation in emerging markets, as well as the growth of China's high tech science parks. His articles on the above issues have appeared in Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Marketing, Organization Science, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Management and Organization Review, Journal of High Technology Management Research, Journal of International Marketing, International Business Review, and others. His paper entitled “The effects of control systems on salesperson trust in the sales manager: a contingency model and empirical test in the context of new product launch” (co-authored with Kwaku Atuahene-Gima) won the Best Paper Award in the Sales SIG track of the 2001 American Marketing Association (AMA) Winter Marketing Educators’ Conference.

 

Dr. Li has served on the editorial review boards of multiple journals including the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Journal of High Technology Management Research, International Journal of Emerging Markets, and Multinational Business Review. He is a keen supporter of the profession through his membership of several professional associations including Academy of Management (AOM), Strategic Management Society (SMS), Academy of International Business (AIB), International Association of Chinese Management Association (PDMA).

 

Dr. Haiyang Li is associate professor of strategic management and innovation at the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University. He earned a Bachelor and a Master in economics from Renmin (People’s) University of China and received a Ph.D. from City University of Hong Kong. Before joining Rice University, he was on the faculty of Department of Management at Texas A&M University.

 

Dr. Li’s research interests focus on technology entrepreneurship and innovation (particularly in China’s transition economy), strategic alliances and multinational firms’ innovation in emerging markets, as well as the growth of China's high tech science parks. His articles on the above issues have appeared in Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Marketing, Organization Science, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Management and Organization Review, Journal of High Technology Management Research, Journal of International Marketing, International Business Review, and others. His paper entitled “The effects of control systems on salesperson trust in the sales manager: a contingency model and empirical test in the context of new product launch” (co-authored with Kwaku Atuahene-Gima) won the Best Paper Award in the Sales SIG track of the 2001 American Marketing Association (AMA) Winter Marketing Educators’ Conference.

 

Dr. Li has served on the editorial review boards of multiple journals including the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Journal of High Technology Management Research, International Journal of Emerging Markets, and Multinational Business Review. He is a keen supporter of the profession through his membership of several professional associations including Academy of Management (AOM), Strategic Management Society (SMS), Academy of International Business (AIB), International Association of Chinese Management Association (PDMA).

 

Seminar Topic: Innovation Search and Collaborative Innovation in an Emerging Market:

Are They Complements or Substitutes

 

Abstract: In this study we propose that external innovation search and collaborative innovation function as substitutes in firms’ product innovation in emerging markets which are characterized with a lack of market-supporting institutions and high search cost. This substitute effect will become weaker as market-supporting institutions are better developed and search costs are reduced. With a sample of manufacturing firms in China, we find empirical support for these arguments. These findings demonstrate that external innovation search and collaborative innovation are two distinctive innovation choices and their roles in product innovation are constrained by institutional development in emerging markets.

 

 

 

Seminar 3

 

 

March 28th, 2013: Greg R. Oldham

 

Location/Time: SB117 12:00-1:30pm

 

Speaker Bio: Greg R. Oldham is the J. F., Jr. and Jesse Lee Seinsheimer Chair in Business in the A. B. Freeman School of Business at Tulane University. Prior to coming to Tulane, Greg was C. Clinton Spivey Distinguished Professor of Business Administration, Professor of Labor and Industrial Relations, and Associate Dean of Faculty in the College of Business at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He received his B.A. in Sociology from the University of California-Irvine and his Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior from Yale University. 

 

Greg’s current research focuses on the contextual and personal conditions that enhance employee creativity in the workplace. He has also conducted numerous studies on the effects of the design of work and work environments on employees’ effectiveness and well-being. Greg’s research on these topics has appeared in many of the leading journals in the field of organizational behavior including, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Organizational Behavior Human Decision Processes.

 

Greg is a Fellow of the Academy of Management, Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, and the American Psychological Association. He is a former President of the Academy of Management and a former Chair of the Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy. He also serves, or has served, on the Editorial Boards of many of the leading journals in the field of organizational behavior. Finally, Greg received the 2004 Distinguished Educator Award from the Academy of Management for his work in developing doctoral students.

 

Seminar Topic: Intergroup Competition as a Double-edged Sword:

How Sex Composition Regulates the Effects of Competition on Group Creativity

 

ABSTRACT: Integrating social role theory with insights from social identity theory, we extend a contingency perspective on intergroup competition proposing that having groups compete against one another is stimulating to the creativity of groups composed largely or exclusively of men but detrimental to the creativity of groups composed largely or exclusively of women. We tested this idea in two laboratory experiments and in one field study. Study 1 showed that competition had the expected positive effects on the creativity of groups composed of all men but did not produce the predicted negative effects on the creativity of groups composed of all women. Study 2 extended the earlier findings and showed that the anticipated effects of competition on group creativity emerged at the higher end of the competition spectrum and also emerged in sex heterogeneous groups. This study also found that a measure of group collaboration mediated the joint effects of competition and sex composition on group creativity. Finally, Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 in a field setting involving R&D teams. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice.

 

 

 

Seminar 4

 

 

May 2nd, 2013: Jennifer Mueller

 

Location/Time: SB117,  12:00 pm - 1:30 pm

 

Speaker Bio:  Jennifer Mueller received her PhD in Social Developmental Psychology from Brandeis University with an emphasis in Health Psychology and has since transitioned into the field of Organizational Behavior.  She has held positions at several business schools including Yale School of Management, the Stern School of Business at NYU, and most recently, the Wharton School.  Jennifer’s work primarily focuses on creativity and collaboration in teams. 

 

Creativity

Jennifer’s ultimate goal is to bridge the gap between creativity research in the micro domain and innovation research in the macro domain by building a richer understanding of the implicit theories of creativity people use to categorize creative ideas and people. Her work in the creativity domain challenges the long held view that people have primarily positive associations with creative ideas and people.  Instead, her work shows that while people say they desire creative ideas and creative leaders, they also have implicit or unacknowledged negative associations with creative ideas and downgrade creative people as less leader-like. By building a theory of negative implicit attitudes towards creative ideas and people, her work reveals many previously unidentified barriers to innovation – some of which point to the very manner in which we typically structure innovation in organizations.  For example, her work builds theory and provides evidence to show that implementer roles (roles such as gate-keepers, editors, venture capitalists and decision makers where occupants select ideas that meet timeline, budgetary and other resource constraints) can evoke an implicit theory that highly novel ideas are not creative because they lack practical use, rather usefulness is the key feature of creative ideas. Furthermore, her work uses the implicit theory of creativity to explain and unveil a proactivity paradox for innovation – the very proactive behaviors aimed at generating creative ideas (e.g., help seeking, brainstorming) can harm idea implementation, while the very behaviors aimed at aiding idea implementation (e.g., idea selling) can harm generation.  By developing theory explaining how implicit processes link to innovation, her work seeks to shed new light on a long-standing puzzle; organizations often desire yet reject creativity. 

 

Collaboration

Jennifer’s work underscores a new take on the dark side of collaboration by identifying that collaboration can harm performance.  For example, her work identifies that the mere act of collaborating can make people feel more confident in their decisions and so more resistant to helpful outside advice.  Additionally, her work explores the dynamics of seeking and giving help to reveal that seeking help can aid creativity, but requires that people give help in return – which ironically harms a person’s own creativity.  Her work also explores the social mechanics of operating in large teams.  Specifically, she employed a field study to examine scientists in design teams ranging from 3 – 20 members in size to show that relational loss – a member’s perception that support and help are less available in larger teams – mediated the relationship between team size and poor individual performance above and beyond coordination loss.  Future projects include examining harming behaviors in all female groups, as well as identifying why collaborators sometimes perform worse on judgment tasks relative to individuals.  Her work integrates theories of interpersonal relationships to enrich what we know about successful (and unsuccessful) collaborations in organizations.

 

Seminar Topic: The Innovator’s Dilemma:

The Tradeoffs of Behaving in Ways to Generate and Implement Creative Ideas

 

Abstract:  Innovation is the generation and implementation of a creative (novel and useful) idea, and yet the literatures describing the two components –idea generation and implementation –have developed separately. This is partly because the prior literature has assumed that the two components are complementary, so engaging in processes to promote one component (e.g., idea implementation) should not deter or conflict with the processes required to successfully complete the second component (e.g., idea generation).  Yet the current presentation will show a series of laboratory and one field study employing data from 514 employees in an organization which encourages creativity to build theory and provide initial evidence showing that innovators face two central dilemmas.  First, when employees behave in ways the literature has shown can promote creative idea generation they incur a reputation cost which deters their ability to implement creative ideas.  Second, when employees behave in ways the literature has theorized will likely aid implementation – this promotes a focus on feasibility which activates an overall aversion to novelty and subsequent diminished ability to generate creative ideas.  In sum, I develop and empirically test theory showing that organizational actors face both a reputation and novelty aversion cost when they behave in ways to generate and implement creative ideas respectively.  The current presentation will provide an initial glimpse of the innovator’s dilemma to ultimately propose a new take on a longstanding puzzle in the creativity and innovation literatures, why organizations and the people within them often desire but reject creativity.

 

 

2011-2012 Seminar Series

 

 

Seminar 1

 

 

September 27th, 2011: Kenji Klein
 
Location/Time: SB116, 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm

 

Speaker Bio: Kenji Klein is a doctoral student in Organization and Management.  He received funding, with his advisor Jone Pearce, from the Beall Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship.  He was named an INFORMS Organization Science dissertation proposal competition finalist for this research.
 
Seminar Topic:
Creating and Maintaining Institutions
Through the Production and Perpetuation of Ignorance
 
Abstract: Institutional scholars have long argued that the inability of actors to conceptualize alternatives to dominant institutional arrangements plays a key role in the maintenance of those arrangements, yet little is known about how actors come to be unable to conceptualize alternatives to such arrangements.  This paper addresses that gap through historical analysis of the origins and perpetuation of marijuana prohibition.  This analysis reveals the way that institutionalization depends upon the ongoing disruption and suppression of knowledge, communities, and material artifacts that undermine the taken-for-granted status of dominant institutions.  It also suggests conditions under which the taken-for-granted status of dominant institutions becomes vulnerable to erosion.  Implications for research on institutional work and power in institutional processes are discussed.  A case is made for the relevance of the study of ignorance and forgetting in organizational processes to supplement the extensive literature on knowledge and learning.

Seminar 2

 


October 6th, 2011: Anne Marie Knott
 
Location/Time: SB117, 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm
 
Speaker Bio: Anne Marie Knott is Professor of Strategy at the Olin School of Business, Washington University. Previously, she was Assistant Professor of Management at Wharton where she taught Entrepreneurship from 1995-2004.  Professor Knott received a B.S. in Math from University of Utah, an MBA from UCLA in marketing and operations management, and a PhD from UCLA in Management.

Her general research interest is the interplay between firm strategies and innovation/economic growth.  Roughly half this work looks at entrepreneurship; the other half looks at large scale R&D—since the two appear to be complementary.  Her academic work is published in the Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Journal of Small Business Economics, Organization Science, Management Science and Strategic Management Journal.  In addition to the academic work she has an entrepreneurship text, “Venture Design” and a forthcoming book from Harvard Business Press “Organizational IQ” which translates her measure of R&D effectiveness into implications for managers.

Prior to her academic career, Professor Knott spent one year managing her father’s startup print shop, fifteen years at Hughes Aircraft Company doing R&D on missile guidance systems, and seven days on Family Feud.  A clip from one of the episodes can be seen every thirty minutes on the Family Feud slot machine at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas.
 
Seminar Topic: Delayed Exit
 
Abstract: Delayed exit is a substantial economic problem.  A prevalent explanation for delayed exit is behavioral biases associated with escalated commitment.  In general however exit will exhibit inertia even absent bias.  This arises both from decision maker efforts to avoid Type I error while discovering the long run prospects of an endeavor and from the option value of exit.  Solutions to exit delays differ depending upon which source predominates, yet empirical tests to date have not disentangled the relative importance of these sources.  We characterize exit delay in the population of U.S. banks between 1984 and 1997, and examine its causes.  The exit behavior of bank holding companies is consistent with efforts to minimize Type I error. By contrast, the behavior of non-bank holding companies, where agency problems are presumably less severe, is consistent with taking the option value of learning into account.  Both bank holding companies and non-bank holding companies exhibit asymmetric responses to positive and negative performance information, consistent with behavioral bias, although this asymmetric updating is more severe in bank holding companies.
 

 

Link to Seminar Video

Seminar 3

 

 

February 23rd, 2012: Maxim Sytch
 
Location/Time: SB112, 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm
 
Speaker Bio:  Maxim Sytch's research focuses on the dynamics of the social structure of inter-organizational relations (e.g., partnership ties and patent infringement lawsuits among organizations) and on their consequences for individual organizations and their exchanges. He also examines the implications of social structure for entire communities of organizations. Coupling various methodologies (longitudinal analysis, agent-based modeling, survey analysis, and qualitative research) with social network analytic techniques, he assesses how inter-organizational ties form, evolve, and aggregate into globally interconnected social systems. He investigates how the structure of these systems and an organization’s position in them impacts organizational behavior and outcomes and the evolution and outcomes of inter-organizational dyadic exchanges. Organization-level outcomes include the organization’s performance in procurement relationships; its propensity to enter into collaborative relationships and to initiate and sustain conflictual interactions; and the organization’s growth rate and innovation performance. He also examines the implications of global network structures for entire communities of organizations in terms of the networks’ enabling or constraining the diffusion of knowledge across different industries.
 
Seminar Topic:
Where Do Lawsuits Come From?
The Role of Spatial Distribution of Principals and Legal Mediating Agents
 
Abstract: This study investigates the origins of inter-organizational litigation. It explores how the spatial distribution of principals (companies) and mediating agents (intellectual property litigation firms) can facilitate and sustain patent infringement lawsuits among companies. Spatial propinquity is hypothesized to determine the nature of interaction and social relationships between the principal’s and the mediating agent’s employees that can subsequently affect the mediating agent’s involvement in identifying opportunities for the principal to engage in litigation. This study’s context is the patterns of spatial distribution of 405 U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies (the principals) and the population of 365 intellectual property (IP) litigation firms (the mediating agents) and their 2,255 U.S. regional offices. It relates these patterns to the companies’ involvement in patent infringement disputes from 1999 to 2006. Additionally, this study uses evidence from thirty-six semi-structured interviews with legal practitioners. Results suggest that proximity to IP litigation firms increases the number of lawsuits a company files, even when accounting for the endogeneity in law firms’ location choices.  Greater proximity to the IP litigation firm retained for a given lawsuit also lengthens that lawsuit’s duration, although this effect is moderated by the characteristics of the local institutional environment in which the company is located.
 

 

Link to Seminar Video

Seminar 4

 

 

March 1st, 2012: Ted Baker
 
Location/Time: SB116, 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm
 
Speaker Bio: Ted Baker is an associate professor in the Management, Innovation & Entrepreneurship Department at the North Carolina State University College of Management, where he is Executive Director of the Entrepreneurship Collaborative. He earned his PhD (Sociology) from UNC-Chapel Hill and his MBA from the University of Chicago. The first half of his adult life was spent in leadership roles in a variety of entrepreneurial ventures.  His current research focuses on entrepreneurship under resource constraints (for example in the informal settlements around Cape Town, South Africa and in the textiles industry in the American South) and in particular on bricolage and improvisation as constructs useful for understanding resourceful behavior and resilience.  He is Associate Editor at Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal and serves on the editorial boards Academy of Management Review, of Administrative Science Quarterly, Journal of Business Venturing and Journal of Management Studies. Ted is Representative at Large for the Entrepreneurship Division of the Academy of Management and Chairs the division’s Research Committee.
 
Seminar Topic:
Weathering the Storm:
Negative slack, identity and resilience in entrepreneurial firms 
 
Abstract: In this inductive field study of thirteen resource-constrained textile firms attempting to deal with both the severe decline in the US textile and garment industry and the global financial crisis and recession, we discover strong effects of entrepreneurs’ individual-level identity structures on organization level resilience. We develop grounded typologies of entrepreneurial identity and of entrepreneurial resilience and induce a process model demonstrating how entrepreneurs’ sense of “who I am” and “who I want to be” shapes their firms’ patterns of resilient behaviors. Our model provides the groundwork for understanding variations in patterns of disbanding the firm or keeping it going among ventures facing similar sets of challenges. Our results challenge and extend traditional notions of resilience from organizational theory, traditional notions of identity from the entrepreneurship literature and strongly held presumptions about the motivations of entrepreneurs from the entrepreneurship, strategy and economics literatures.  Our findings regarding sources of entrepreneurial identity demand integration between long-competing strands of theory from sociological and psychological social psychology.

 

Seminar 5
 


March 15th, 2012: Joel Baum
 
Location/Time: SB112, 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm
 
Speaker Bio:
Joel A.C. Baum is the George E. Connell Chair in Organizations and Society, and Associate Dean, Faculty at the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto (with a cross-appointment to the Department of Sociology).  Joel is interested in patterns of competition and cooperation among firms, and their influence on firm behavior, learning, and performance. He is a founding coeditor of Strategic Organization and served as editor-in-chief of Advances in Strategic Management from 1998 to 2010. He received his PhD in organizational behavior from the University of Toronto late in the last millennium.
 
Seminar Topic: Prescriptions for Network Strategy:
Does evidence of network effects in cross-section support them?
 
Abstract:
Joel A.C. Baum (Toronto), Robin Cowan (Maastricht/Strasbourg), and Nicolas Jonard (Luxembourg)
Intuitively appealing (and common), drawing network strategy implications from empirical evidence of network performance effects in pooled cross-section is not necessarily warranted. This is because network positions can influence both the mean and variance of firm performance. Strategic prescriptions are warranted if empirically observed network effects reflect increases in mean firm performance. If network effects reflect increases in firm performance variance, however, such prescriptions are warranted only if the increase in the odds of achieving high performance are sufficient to compensate for the concomitant increase in the odds of realizing poor performance. Our simulation study, designed to examine network performance effects in both pooled cross-section and within-firm over time under a wide range of conditions, counsels caution in drawing implications for network strategies.

 

Link to Seminar Video

 

Seminar 6

 

 

May 15th, 2012: Lee Fleming
 
Location/Time: SB112, 11:30 am - 1:00 pm
 
Speaker Bio: Professor Lee Fleming joined the IEOR Dept. at UCB this Fall 2011. He teaches the engineering leadership and capstone integration courses within the Masters of Engineering curriculum. His research investigates how managers can increase their organization's chances of inventing a breakthrough, through types of collaboration, the integration of scientific and empirical search strategies, and the recombination of diverse technologies. His recent work has disambiguated the U.S. patent record and demonstrated that non-compete agreements create a brain-drain from states that enforce non-competes to states that do not. Dr. Fleming is currently on leave from his position as the Albert J. Weatherhead III Professor of Business Administration at Harvard University.

Dr. Fleming earned his bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering at UC Davis. Dr. Fleming earned a master’s in Engineering Management from Stanford University in the Honors Cooperative Program. He received his Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior in the Department of Industrial Engineering at Stanford. He also completed a master’s in statistics during his doctoral years.
 
Seminar Topic: How Anticipated Employee Mobility Affects  Acquisition Likelihood:
Evidence from a Natural Experiment

Abstract:  Extant M&A research has focused on how acquiring firms may use acquisitions to source human talents from target companies. In this study, we argue that acquirers incorporate expectations about employee mobility into decisions regarding whether to bid for a firm, suggesting a negative relationship between the expected employee mobility in a firm and the likelihood of the firm becoming an acquisition target. We exploit a natural experiment in Michigan wherein an inadvertent change in the enforcement of non-compete agreements provides an observable, exogenous source of variation in employee mobility. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we find causal evidence that constraints on employee mobility in Michigan raise the likelihood that a Michigan firm becomes an acquisition target. We also find that the effect is stronger when a firm is more exposed to the negative consequences of employee mobility, such as when a firm employs more knowledge workers in its work force and when a firm faces greater in-state competition; by contrast, the effect is weaker when a firm is protected by a stronger intellectual property regime that mitigates the consequences of employee mobility.

 

Link to Seminar Video

Seminar 7



April 25th, 2012: Denis Trapido

 

Location/Time: SB223, 09:30 am - 11:00 am

 
Speaker Bio:
Professor Denis Trapido joined the Merage School of Business in 2008. His research focuses on formation of social relations in economy. He currently examines the social effects of economic competition and the role of motive signaling in shaping inter-firm social networks. As part of this project, he has studied the evolution of the venture capital industry and of 18th century maritime merchant communities. His fieldwork in the San Francisco Bay Area, supported by the National Science Foundation, has mapped the networks of competition and inter-organizational ties among two thirds of the active drug development companies in the region. Professor Trapido’s research has appeared in Social Forces, European Sociological Review, and Society and Economy. He has also contributed book chapters and published wider-interest interdisciplinary work.
 

Seminar Topic: When Originality Gains Recognition:

The Categorical Imperative of the Context

 

Link to Seminar Video

 

 

2010-2011 Seminar Series


Seminar 1

 

September 30th, 2010: Siew Hong Teoh (David Hirshleifer), Accounting, The Paul Merage School of Business, UCI

 

 

Location/Time: SB 112, 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm

 

Speaker Bio: Professor Teoh is the Dean’s Professor of Accounting at UCI. She has served on faculty at UCLA, University of Michigan, and The Ohio State University. Her recent research studies psychological effects on managerial and firm behaviors and performance. Her work on earnings management has been praised by scholars for the important finding that the market seems not to efficiently impound management's actions into security prices. She received awards from the Social Investment Forum (Moskowitz prize for best paper in the area on socially responsible investing) and the Chicago Quantitative Alliance. She has published widely in leading journals in Accounting, Finance, and Economics. They include The Accounting Review, Journal of Accounting Research, Journal of Accounting and Economics, Journal of Finance, Journal of Financial Economics, Review of Financial Studies, and the Rand Journal of Economics.

 

Seminar Topic: Are Overconfident CEOs Better Innovators?

 By David Hirshleifer, Angie Low, and Siew Hong Teoh

 

 Abstract: Using options- and press-based proxies for CEO overconfidence (Malmendier and Tate 2005a, 2005b,   

 2008), we find that over the 1993-2003 period, firms with overconfident CEOs have greater return volatility, invest more 

 in innovation, obtain more patents and patent citations, and achieve greater innovative success for given research and

 development (R&D) expenditure. Overconfident managers only achieve greater innovation than non-overconfident

 managers in innovative industries. Overconfidence is not associated with lower sales, ROA, or Q.

Seminar 2

 

December 2nd, 2010: Toby Stuart

 

 

Location/Time: SB112, 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm

 

Speaker Bio: Toby E. Stuart is the Charles Edward Wilson Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School. Previously he was the Arthur J. Samberg Professor of Organizations & Strategy and Academic Director of the Eugene M. Lang Entrepreneurship Center at Columbia Business School. He was also course head for Strategy Formulation. From 1995 to 2003, he was on the faculty at the University of Chicago’s Graduate School of Business, where he was the Fred G. Steingraber-A.T. Kearney Professor of Organizations & Strategy. He received his Ph.D. from the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. He holds an A.B., summa cum laude, in economics from Carleton College. Prior to earning his Ph.D., Dr. Stuart was a Research Associate at the Harvard Business School.
 

His research has examined the formulation of firm strategies in a number of industries; the formation, governance, and consequences of strategic alliances; organizational design and new venture formation in established firms; venture capital networks, and the role of networks in the creation of new firms. In a recent project, he is examining the circumstances surrounding academic life scientists’ technology commercialization initiatives, including starting and advising firms. He has published numerous articles in refereed management, strategy, and general field journals, including Administrative Science Quarterly, American Journal of Sociology, Science, Strategic Management Journal, Management Science, Research Policy, and Industrial and Corporate Change. He has served as an Associate Editor of the American Journal of Sociology and is a member of the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly, Management Science, Strategic Management Journal, Research Policy, and Industrial and Corporate Change.
 

Professor Stuart is the recipient of the 2007 Kauffman Prize Medal for Distinguished Research in Entrepreneurship, which is granted every other year to recognize one individual’s contributions to entrepreneurship research. He has also received the Administrative Science Quarterly’s Scholarly Contribution (best paper) award, as well as the Columbia Business School’s Dean’s Award for Teaching Excellence.

 

Seminar Topic: Matthew: Effect or Fable?

 

Abstract: Status effects occur when actors are accorded differential recognition for their efforts depending on their location in a status ordering, holding constant the quality of these efforts. In practice, because it is diffcult to measure quality, this ceteris paribus proviso often precludes convincing empirical assessments of the magnitude of status effects. We address this problem by examining the impact of a major status-conferring prize that shifts actors’ positions in a prestige ordering. Specifically, using a precisely constructed matched sample, we estimate the effect of a scientist becoming a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator (HHMI) on citations to articles the scientist published before the prize was awarded. We find evidence of a post-appointment citation boost, but the effect is small and confined to a short window of time. Consistent with theories of status, however, the effect of the prize is significantly larger when there is uncertainty about producer and product quality. 

Seminar 3

 

 

January 21st, 2011: Woody Powell

 

 

Location/Time: SB117, 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm

 

Speaker Bio:  Walter W. Powell is Professor of Education, Sociology, Organizational Behavior, Management Science and Engineering, and Communication at Stanford University, and an external faculty member at the Santa Fe Institute.  His interests focus on the processes through which knowledge is transferred across organizations, and the role of networks in facilitating or hindering innovation and institutions in codifying ideas. He recently completed a book with John Padgett, titled The Emergence of Organizations and Markets, culminating a decade- long project that analyzes the role of networks in invention, transposition, and re-functionality.

His 1990 article, “Neither Market Nor Hierarchy: Network Forms of Organization,” won the 1991 Max Weber prize. “Network Dynamics and Field Evolution: The Growth of Inter-Organizational Collaboration,” with D. White, K. Koput, and J. Owen-Smith (2005), received the 2007 Viviana Zelizer prize for best paper in economic sociology.  “Technological Change and the Locus of Innovation: Networks of Learning in Biotechnology,” with K. Koput and L. Smith-Doerr (1996), was recognized by Administrative Science Quarterly as its most influential publication in 2002. His 1983 paper with Paul DiMaggio, “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields,” with Paul DiMaggio, is the most cited article in the history of the American Sociological Review.

Powell is the author or editor of Books: The Culture and Commerce of Publishing, with Lewis Coser and Charles Kadushin (Basic Books, 1982); Getting into Print: The Decision-Making Process in Scholarly Publishing (U. of Chicago Press, 1985);  The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis, with Paul DiMaggio (U. of Chicago Press, 1991); Private Action and the Public Good, with Elisabeth Clemens (Yale U. Press, 1997); and The Nonprofit Sector, with Richard Steinberg (Yale U. Press, 2006).  He received his PhD in Sociology from SUNY – Stony Brook, and previously taught at Yale, MIT, and the University of Arizona. He holds honorary degrees from Uppsala University, Copenhagen Business School, and the Helsinki School of Economics, and is a foreign member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Science.
 

Seminar Topic: Organizational and Institutional Genesis: The Emergence of High-Tech Clusters in the Life Sciences

 

Abstract: Most research on the emergence of high-tech clusters samples on successful cases, and works backwards to trace a narrative, often highlighting the role of specific individuals or groups.  Our approach begins with the formation of a new field - - biotechnology in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and follows the field to the present.  We emphasize the sequence of network formation, and the importance of organizational diversity and catalytic organizations that provide relational and normative glue.  We examine eleven regions in the U.S. that were rich in resources - - ideas, money, and skills - - that could have lead to the formation of life science clusters.  Three of the communities formed robust groupings, but most did not. 

 

Although local details are always relevant, our argument transcends the nuances of history in each community to specify the processes and mechanisms that foster catalytic growth.  The necessary conditions are a diversity of for-profit, nonprofit, and public organizations, a local anchor tenant, and a dense web of local relationships.  These features make possible cross-network transposition, whereby experience, status, and legitimacy in one domain are converted into ‘fresh’ action in another.  The argument does not hinge on specific types of organizations or ingredients; indeed, it is general enough to accommodate multiple pathways.

 

Sponsored By: Don Beall Center for Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Department of Sociology, and Center for Organizational Research

 

Host:  Professor Christine M. Beckman

 

Scheduling RSVP: Maria E. Gonzalez-Tan  (Email:  mgonzal9@uci.edu) 

 

Seminar 4

 

 

April 7th, 2011: Professor Katherine Phillips, Visiting Faculty Stanford Graduate School of Business, Organizational Behavior; Visiting Scholar at the Center for Advanced Studies in Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.

 

Location/ Time: SB306 12:00-1:30pm

 

Speaker Bio: Professor Katherine W. Phillips (née Williams) is Associate Professor of Management and Organizations and Co-Director of the Center on the Science of Diversity. She joined the faculty in 1999 after receiving her PhD in Organizational Behavior from Stanford University's Graduate School of Business. Professor Phillips’ research focuses on understanding the impact of social and task-relevant diversity on group functioning and individual outcomes. She has looked at the impact of gender on the utilization of expertise, the impact of race and other social distinctions on information sharing in groups, and generally speaking seeks to understand how to get any group of people to share, listen to, and successfully integrate the ideas and information possessed by all members of the organization. Her work can be found in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Research in Organizational Behavior (under Williams). Professor Phillips has received awards for her research from the International Association of Conflict Management, the Academy of Management, and the State Farm Foundation.

Professor Phillips’ research has been featured in numerous media outlets including the Chicago Tribune, Time Magazine.com, Fortune.com, Working Women, The Globe and Mail, and The Mint.
 

 

Seminar Topic: The Value of Diversity in Teams? An Integrated Perspective                                       
In this talk I will provide an overview of my research on diversity in teams. The talk will culminate in the presentation of recent work showing that the purported downsides of social category diversity may ultimately be responsible for the benefits that accrue.

 

Abstract: A purported downside of social category diversity is decreased relationship focus (i.e., one’s focus on establishing a positive social bond with a coworker). However, this lack of relationship focus serves as a central mechanism that improves pre-meeting elaboration and ultimately decision-making performance in diverse settings. Moreover, when given the opportunity to accumulate important unique information diverse teams are more likely to acquire the information and use it properly for improved group performance while homogeneous teams are more likely to leave information on the table in an effort to avoid conflict. When they do accrue unique information they are less able to use it for effective performance. We discuss the value of studying pre- and early-stage interaction and propose a re-consideration of the “downside” of social category diversity. 

Seminar 5

 

 

 

April 29th, 2011: Lynne G. Zucker

 

Location/ Time: SB112 12:00-1:30pm

 

Speaker Bio : Dr. Lynne G. Zucker currently serves as Professor of Sociology (1989- ) and Public Policy (1996- )
and as Director (1996- ) of the Center for International Science, Technology, and Cultural Policy in the
UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs at the University of California, Los Angeles. Concurrently, she
holds appointments as Research Associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research and Fellow of
the California Council on Science and Technology. She has also served as Consulting Sociologist with
the American Institute of Physics.


Lynne Zucker is the widely-cited author of seven books and monographs as well as numerous journal
and other articles on organizational theory, analysis, and evaluation, institutional structure and process, trust
production, generation and sharing of knowledge, science and its commercialization, civil service,
government spending and services, unionization, and permanently failing organizations. She is currently
extending her research to the area of cultural production. She has served on editorial boards for the top
organizational and sociological journals, most notably Administrative Science Quarterly, American Journal
of Sociology, and American Sociological Review. She has also served on the NSF Young Presidential
Scholar Award Panel, NSF Sociology Panel, and, most recently, served on the NSF Partnerships For
Innovation Panel.


Professor Zucker received her A.B. with Distinction in Sociology & Psychology from Wells College in
1966. She took her M.A. in 1969 and Ph.D. in 1974 from the Sociology Department of Stanford University.
She has been a member of the UCLA Sociology Department faculty since then, as Lecturer (1974-75),
Assistant Professor (1975-81), and Associate Professor (1981-89) before being appointed Professor.
She has also served in a variety of university and other appointments since 1974 including Economist
with the Statistics of Income Division of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (1989-94), and visiting
appointments in the Department of Sociology of the University of Chicago (1982), the Program on Non-
Profit Organizations of the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University (1986), and the Ph.D.
Program in Organizational Behavior at the Harvard Business School (1987). She was U.S. representative for
organizational data on the British Economic and Social Research Council and National Science Foundation
Joint Committee on Comparative Binational Data (1986-89) and a member of the Committee on Evaluation
of Employment and Training Programs of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council:
Committee on Evaluation of Employment and Training Programs (1977-80).


Dr. Zucker and her husband, Michael Darby, who is the Warren C. Cordner Distinguished Professor of
Money and Financial Markets in the UCLA Anderson Graduate School of Management, have four children.
They serve on the Board of Directors of the Opera Associates and pursue a variety of cultural interests.
- UCLA/L&S -

 

Seminar Topic: Economic Effects of the Co-Evolution of Universities and Firms:Tacit and Deeded Knowledge    Protection and Acquisition; Lynne G. Zucker and Michael R. Darby, UCLA and NBER 

 

Abstract: Strategies and incentives of firms behave like “genes” in providing a framework or set of recipes for reaching organizational objectives; the expression of these genes occurs in the skills that employees have. Near the knowledge frontier, the skills are often based on highly tacit knowledge and are difficult to learn without working directly with other scientists who already have these skills. As on-going discoveries are made, nearly continuous learning of this hands-on type is required, pressuring scientists in existing organizations to update knowledge and skills. We report preliminary evidence that those scientists who cross the firm-university boundary in their collaborations or personal employment histories are subsequently much more productive in patenting and in publishing than fellow employees, whether currently working in a firm or in a university. These skills (patenting- and publishing-related) are synergistic, with production of one skill set often producing more new discoveries and resources that are valuable to the production of the other.Tacit knowledge also affects the ability of pre-existing organizations to acquire access to the new knowledge. When knowledge is sufficiently discontinuous, new firms are born in response, built around those scientists who have the new skills, while existing organizations must recruit or re-train to acquire skills needed for conversion. The value of tacit knowledge when observable and easily copied by others may be rapidly competed away, but if learning by doing is required to gain the knowledge, then it may be naturally excludable such that training by the scientist(s) who made the discovery may be required initially and this ability to do hands-on training to others may only gradually spread to others. We have found significant positive effects of tacit or defacto intellectual property rights on number of patents granted (deeded rights) and on number of products in development, and also find roughly equal effects of defacto and deeded rights on financial success of firms. These findings argue strongly for including both tacit-based rights and deeded rights in models predicting financial and other success.

 

Seminar 6

 

 

May 26th, 2011 : Kaye Schoonhoven

 

Location/ Time : SB112 12:00-1:30pm

 

Speaker Bio : Claudia Schoonhoven is Professor of Organization and Strategy and the past Editor-in-Chief of Organization Science. Her research focuses on the evolutionary dynamics of technology-based firms, innovation, and entrepreneurship. She is currently investigating the influence of strategic partnerships on new venture performance and the dynamic effects of entrepreneurship on the evolution of industries. Her research has been published in the Administrative Science Quarterly, the Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, and other journals and books. She is co-author of The Entrepreurship Dynamic: origins of entrepreneurship and the evolution of industries (Stanford University Press, 2001) and The Innovation Marathon: Lessons from High Technology Firms, (Basil Blackwell, 1990; Jossey-Bass, 1993).

From 1993 - 1998, Dr. Schoonhoven served as Professor of Business Administration, Amos Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College. She was elected to the Board of Governors of the Academy of Management, has Chaired the Organization and Management Theory Division of the Academy, served as President of the Western Academy of Management, and on the editorial boards of the Administrative Science Quarterly, Organization Science, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, and Journal of Business Venturing.

 

Seminar Topic :  Where do new firms come from? Science and Innovation precursors of
de novo population emergence in nanotechnology 1970-2004

 

Abstract : We have learned a great deal about how technology and innovation processes operate within existing firms and across organizations and industries. This includes for example studies of in-house research, technology alliances, organizational networks, and the acquisition of innovative firms (e.g. Utterback, 1970; Utterback et al., 1988; Brown & Eisenhardt, 1997; Eisenhardt & Schoonhoven, 1996; Rosenkopf et al. 2001; Tushman, 2004). However we have limited understanding about how new populations of science-based organizations emerge from theoretical breakthroughs, scientific research, and patented innovations based on new science. We do not know how scientific knowledge and technical knowledge combine with the availability of human resources to impact new population emergence. In this paper we investigate these questions by drawing from institutional and ecological theory to predict the birth of de novo dedicated nanotechnology organizations from 1970 to 2004.

Over the period 1970-2004 we control for VC resource availability, prior de alio entrants, prior de novo entrants, and field legitimacy. We find that higher growth of scientific knowledge (published scientific articles) increases the new firm founding rate, whereas technical knowledge growth (patent filings) decreases the founding rate.  With respect to the impact of human capital availability, growth of in the number of scientific authors has a curvilinear effect, initially increasing the birth rate with a subsequent decrease. Conversely, growth in the number of patent authors has the opposite curvilinear effect, initially decreasing births, and subsequently increasing the birth rate. The relationship of these results to existing theory is discussed.

 

 

 

 

2009-2010 Seminar Series


Seminar 1

 

 

November 9th 2009: Renee Rottner- UC Irvine, Organization & Management

Speaker Bio: Renee Rottner is a doctoral student at UCI's Merage School of Business. Her research focuses on the process of innovation and R&D-intensive organizations, and her related interests include the social impact of technology, public policy, and entrepreneurship. She has a master’s degree in management science from Stanford University and a grant from NASA (with her advisor, Prof. Christine Beckman) that is partially funding this research.

 

Seminar Topic: Growth Rings:  Patterns of Resource Bundle Emergence and Dynamics in New Ventures


Abstract: I will discuss my research on innovative activity in established and entrepreneurial organizations, and in particular the processes of legitimacy and resource acquisition in innovation.  My dissertation examines an established organization, NASA, and the processes by which legitimacy is acquired to sustain innovation in a space telescope project from 1971-2003.  After briefly laying out this research on how legitimacy is acquired, lost and reacquired in an established setting, I will present a separate study on how resources are acquired, lost and reacquired in new ventures and how these patterns of resource acquisition affect firm survival. This inductive study of new ventures identifies eight resource categories and four resource bundling dynamics: resource diversity, resource balance, managerial bundling skill, and bundling speed. I argue that these dynamics by which resources are bundled and rebundled affect new firm survival by increasing the ability of the firm to withstand uncertainty and shocks. These dynamics are illustrated with a new comparative case method called ‘growth rings.’  Implications for entrepreneurial theory and practice will be discussed.

Seminar 2

 

 

January 28th, 2010: Jac Mezaros, National Science Foundation


Location/Time: SB 122 

Speaker Bio: Jacqueline Meszaros is Program Director for Innovation and Organizational Sciences and for Decision, Risk and Management Sciences at the National Science Foundation. She also has responsibilities in the areas of complexity studies and virtual organizations within the Social, Behavioral and Economic sciences.  Jack's Ph.D. was in Management and her post- Doctoral work was in Behavioral Economics at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.  Her primary research has been on individual and organizational decision making about low-probability, high-consequence risks. Jack was a professor of management at the University of Washington, Bothell, and at Temple University before she joined the NSF five years ago.

 

 

Seminar TopicCan We Know Innovation When We See It?
 
Abstract: Potentially Transformative Research and the National Science Foundation. Any discussion of innovation includes two parties: the actor who is innovating and a judge who assesses whether the activity is innovative. There is often no answer (at least in the short run) to who is right when the two parties disagree. Obviously scientists who are making grant proposals fall on one side of this question; reviewers and program officers the other. I examine the institutional context in which officers of the National Science Foundation attempt to recognize and incentivize promising innovations by the scientific community. Some key boundaries, essential tensions and incentives are explored, with an eye to informing studies of organizations and innovation generally.

Seminar 3

 

March 19th, 2010: Jason P. Davis, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Host: Yu Zhang)


Location/Time: SB 117, 2:00 pm - 3:30pm

 

 

Seminar Topic: Rotating Leadership and Symbiotic Organization: Relationship Processes in the Context of Collaborative Innovation

 

Abstract:  Relationships between firms are at the heart of how industries are organized, and are central to industry innovation. Despite significant attention focusing on the exchange and endorsement value of these relationships, and how they are formed, little attention has been given to their capacity to generate innovations. Using a multi-case, inductive study of eight technology collaborations between ten firms in the computing and communications industries, this paper examines how interorganizational relationships engender innovation and adaptation in unpredictable and interdependent environments. Comparisons of successful and unsuccessful collaborations show that generating collaborative innovations depends not only on appropriate design conditions (e.g., governance form, social embeddedness) as suggested by prior literature, but also on using appropriate organizational processes that lead relationships over time. While less successful collaborations are associated with domineering leadership or consensus leadership processes, successful collaborations use a rotating leadership process that creates transient unilateral leadership opportunities for each partner. Rotating leadership involves alternating decision control between partners to engender high-quality contributions of technologies and IP, fluctuating cascades of network activation which dynamically modify innovative team composition, and zig-zagging relationship trajectories that effectively search the broader space of potential innovations. A broader contribution is to reframe inter-organizational relationships as organizational symbiosis, a state of organization that engenders mutually reinforcing adaptive changes to partner’s strategies and structures.

Seminar 4

 

 

April 15th, 2010: Deb Dougherty, Rutgers

 

 

Location/Time: SB 112, 12 - 1:30 p.m.

 

Abstract: Research on learning for innovation finds that exploratory product innovation is vital for many organizations, but does not explain the social practices that constitute this capability. The logic underlying exploitative learning for innovation eliminates the complexity and emergence that are inherent in exploration. We build an empirically grounded process theory that explains how people can create complex product knowledge, using 99 interviews with people engaged in drug discovery. Our theory defines the complex content of exploratory product knowledge and the emergent yet systematic learning processes through which innovators create this knowledge. Exploratory innovators search for clues to interdependencies between products and multiple application systems, using three social practices: reaching out for clues, iteratively integrating clues into a manageable configuration, and assessing the progress of learning.  We sketch out managerial approaches to enable these practices, and discuss how searching for clues may be the capability for learning that underpins a wider range of product innovations.

Seminar 5

 

May 20th, 2010: Mary Tripsas, Entrepreneurship, Harvard Business School (Host: Christine Beckman)

Location/Time: SB 112, 12:00 pm – 1:30 pm

 

Seminar Topic: The Influence of Prior Industry Affiliation on Framing in Nascent Industries: The Evolution of Digital Cameras

 

Abstract: New industries sparked by technological change are characterized by high technological, market, and competitive uncertainty. In this paper we explore how a firm's conceptualization of products in this context, reflected in its introduction of product features, is influenced by prior industry affiliation.  We hypothesize first, that prior industry experience shapes a set of shared beliefs resulting in similar and concurrent firm behavior, second, that firms will notice and imitate the behaviors of firms from the same prior industry, and third, that as firms gain experience with particular features, the influence of prior industry will decrease.  Our hypotheses are supported by findings from a quantitative, large sample study of digital cameras introduced from 1991 to 2006 by firms from three prior industries: photography, consumer electronics, and computers.  By 2003, several features had emerged as a dominant design, however the timing and rate of adoption varied by prior industry. This study extends previous research on firm entry into new domains by examining heterogeneity in firms' feature-level entry choices.  In addition, we contribute to work on dominant designs, going beyond characterizing a dominant design as a set of technological choices, to understanding cognitive convergence on a standard set of demand-side product features.

Seminar 6


June 9th, 2010: Joanna Ho, Accounting, The Paul Merage School of Business, UCI (Host: Christine Beckman)

 

Location/Time: SB 116, 12:00 pm – 1:30 pm

 

Seminar Topic: Are Family Firms Less Likely to Sacrifice Innovation Activities for Earnings Management?

 

Abstract: We examine whether managerial myopia, proxied by the reduction of research and development (R&D)  

spending, differs between family and non-family firms. Using data from the S&P 1500 firms, we find that, compared 

to  non-family firms, family firms are less likely to cut R&D spending to meet short-term earnings goals. Furthermore,

the likelihood of cutting R&D spending to meet short-term earnings goals is lower for actively-managed family firms

than passively-managed family firms. In addition, our empirical analysis shows that, when under heightened

pressure to manage earnings, the tendency to engage in accrual-based earnings management is not different

between family and non-family firms; however, family firms are less likely to undertake real earnings management

activities including the manipulation of cash flow from operations and discretionary expenses.


 

 

 

2008-2009 Seminar Series

 

  • Seminar 1

     

    October 24, 2008: Riita Katila - Stanford University, Management Science and Engineering 

    Location/Time:
    SB 117, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm

    Speaker Bio: Riita Katila is an Assistant Professor of Management Science & Engineering at Stanford University, and a faculty member at the Stanford Technology Ventures Program. Her research focuses on technology strategy and organizational evolution. Her work has appeared in the Academy of Management Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, Strategic Management Journal, Research Policy and other outlets. She was the recipient of the Best Dissertation Award from the TIM division of the Academy of Management, the INFORMS Technology Management Best Dissertation Award, and the Best Symposium Award by the OMT Division of the Academy of Management. She serves on the editorial boards of Organization Science, Strategic Management Journal, and Strategic Organization. She is an Alfred P. Sloan Industry Studies Fellow (2007-2009), and was selected as the Strategic Management Society’s Emerging Scholar of the Year in 2008.

    Seminar Topic: Effects of timing on product innovation: the value of not being in synch

    Abstract: This paper investigates how firms search for new products. While prior work takes a firm-centric view, we study how the firm's search depends on that of its competitors. Drawing on organizational learning theory, we argue and find that search timing relative to competitors matters. Two seemingly contradictory views are tested: that competitors take away the exclusivity of search and therefore suppress innovation, or, in contrast, sharpen and validate the focal firm's search and thus promote innovation.

    Our analysis of 15 years of longitudinal data on 124 Japanese, European, and U.S. industrial automation organizations reconciles these views. In particular, firms introduce more new products if they search after their competitors, and they introduce innovative new products if they search ahead of competitors. Interestingly, the most innovative firms combine these two out-of-sync approaches, but avoid searching in sync.

     

    Seminar 2


    November 6th 2008: Jason Dedrick- UC Irvine, CRITO

    Location/Time: SB 117, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm 

    Seminar Topic: Who Profits from Innovation in Global Value Chains? A Study of the iPod and Notebook PCs 


    Speaker Bio: Jason Dedrick is Senior Research Fellow at the Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations (CRITO), at the University of California, Irvine. His research interests include economic development, industrial policy, technology diffusion, and the globalization of the computer industry. He holds a Ph.D. in Management from the University of California, Irvine.
    Dr. Dedrick's current work is focused on the international diffusion of computer production and use. He is particularly interested in the environmental and policy factors influencing the patterns of diffusion in individual countries and globally. He has done earlier work on the computer sector in Mexico, and has been working on twelve Asia-Pacific countries for the past five years.

     

    Seminar 3

    January 16th 2009: Lori Rosenkopf- Wharton 

    Location/Time: SB 117, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm 

     

    Seminar TopicBalancing exploration and exploitation in more than one domain

    Abstract: Organizational research advocates that firms balance exploration and exploitation yet acknowledges inherent challenges in reconciling these opposing activities. To overcome these challenges, such research suggests that firms establish organizational separation between exploring and exploiting units or engage in temporal separation whereby they oscillate between exploration and exploitation over time. Nevertheless, these approaches entail resource allocation tradeoffs and conflicting organizational routines, which may undermine organizational performance as firms seek to balance exploration and exploitation within a discrete field of organizational activity (i.e., domain). We posit that firms can overcome such impediments and enhance their performance if they explore in one domain while exploiting in another. Studying the alliance portfolios of software firms, we demonstrate that firms do not typically benefit from balancing exploration and exploitation within the function domain (technology versus marketing and production alliances) and structure domain (new versus prior partners). Nevertheless, firms that balance exploration and exploitation across these domains by engaging in R&D alliances while collaborating with their prior partners, or alternatively by forming marketing and production alliances while seeking new partners, gain in profits and market value. Moreover, we reveal that increases in firm size that exacerbate resource allocation tradeoffs and routine rigidity reinforce the benefits of balance across domains and the costs of balance within domains. Our domain separation approach offers new insights into how firms can benefit from balancing exploration and exploitation. What matters is not simply whether firms balance exploration and exploitation in their alliance formation decisions but the means by which they achieve such balance

    Seminar 4

    February 19, 2009: Yan Gong – UC Irvine, Strategy

    Location/Time: SB 122, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm 

    Seminar TopicDancing around improvisation: Advisor network and improvisation migration in new ventures

    Speaker Bio: Professor Yan Gong joined the Merage Faculty in the Fall of 2007. His research focuses on capabilities, routines and unexpected events in entrepreneurial firms. His current research explores dynamic paths of how new firms develop routines and capabilities, and how they respond to surprise events in entrepreneurial processes. He is a finalist for the 2006 INFORMS/Organization Science Dissertation Proposal Competition. His research has appeared in the Handbook of Organizational Routines and Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research.
    Professor Gong taught courses in strategy and entrepreneurship. He has been an advisor to SunNight Solar, involved in a social initiative of developing sustainable lighting solution in Africa.

    Seminar 5

    April 17, 2009 : Josh Lerner- Harvard Business School, Finance

    Location/Time: SB 117, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm

     
    Seminar Topic: With a Little Help from My (Random) Friends: Success and Failure in Post-Business School Entrepreneurship

    Speaker Bio: Josh Lerner is the Jacob H. Schiff Professor of Investment Banking at Harvard Business School, with a joint appointment in the Finance and the Entrepreneurial Management Units. He graduated from Yale College with a Special Divisional Major which combined physics with the history of technology. He worked for several years on issues concerning technological innovation and public policy, at the Brookings Institution, for a public-private task force in Chicago, and on Capitol Hill. He then earned a Ph.D. from Harvard's Economics Department. 

    Seminar 6

     

    May 14th 2009: Ashley Wang and Lu Zhang – UC Irvine, Finance & ODT

    Location/Time: SB 117, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm

    Seminar Topic: Strategy innovativeness and hedge funds




    Sponsored by The Don Beall Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CIE)

    2007-2008 Seminars


    2007-2008 Seminars

    Seminar 1


    November 29, 2007: Andy Hargadon, UC Davis

    Location/Time: SB 117, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm

    Abstract:
    Traditional understanding of expertise has focused on exceptional performance in narrowly defined and static environments: we know little about what it means to be an expert in a dynamic context. There are currently two conflicting models of expertise within dynamic environments—that experts advance change by extending the boundaries of current knowledge and practice (in the sciences, engineering, and arts), and that experts, embedded in current knowledge and practice, resist those changes that redefine those same boundaries. We develop a model that formally acknowledges these distinct roles, and explicates[JK1] the role of experts in driving innovation in dynamic environments. This model of dynamic expertise is grounded in an analysis of the work of engineers at the structural engineering consultancy Dewhurst Macfarlane and Partners on a series of innovative structural glass projects. Over the course of 15 years, this firm pioneered new techniques in the construction industry that enabled the use of glass as a structural material. Our model identifies a number of factors that distinguish dynamic from static expertise: the ability to disregard widespread cultural beliefs and work from principles; the ability to chart adaptive paths through action networks; the ability to transform emergent problems and solutions; and intrinsic motivation and energy. We discuss the implications of this research for understanding and managing the role of experts in technological change. Co-Author: Jennifer K. Whyte, University of Reading, UK.

    Seminar 2

     

    January 24, 2008: Howard Aldrich, Univ. of North Carolina: Small Worlds, Infinite Possibilities? Social Networks and Entrepreneurial Team Formation

    Location/Time: SB 223, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm

    Seminar 3

     

    February 21, 2008: Gerard Tellis, USC, Marshall School of Business: Innovation of Firms Across Nations

    Location/Time: SB 223, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm

    Seminar 4

     

    March 20, 2008: Mike Tushman, Harvard Business School

    Location/Time: SB 223, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm

     

    Abstract: This paper empirically explores the relations between alternative organizational designs and a firm’s ability to explore as well as exploit. We operationalize exploitation and exploration in terms of innovation streams; incremental innovation in existing products as well as exploring into architectural and/or discontinuous innovation. Based on in-depth, longitudinal data on 13 business units and 22 innovations, we describe the consequences of organization design choices on innovation outcomes as well as the ongoing performance of existing products. We find that ambidextrous organization designs are more effective in executing innovation streams than functional, cross-functional, and spinout designs. Further, transitions to ambidextrous designs are associated with increased innovation outcomes, while shifts away from ambidextrous designs are associated with decreased innovation outcomes. We describe the nature of ambidextrous organizational designs – their characteristics, underlying processes, and boundary conditions. Given these patterns, we suggest that locus of integration and degree of structural differentiation together affect a firm’s ability to explore as well as exploit. We suggest that the senior team’s ability to attend to and deal with contradictory internal architectures is a crucial determinant of a firm’s ability to exploit in the short term and explore over time.

    Seminar 5

     

    April 24, 2008: Walt Scacchi, UC Irvine

    Location/Time: SB 120, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm

    Seminar 6

     

    October 25, 2007: Cristina Gibson, The Merage School at UC Irvine: "When Complex Change is Status Quo: Exploring the Concept of Collaboration External Adjustment in Film Making"

    Location/Time: MPAA 120, 12:00pm - 1:30 pm

    Abstract:
    This paper examines collaboration external adjustment, defined as the collective capability to adapt to challenges in the environment by modifying interaction with external constituents. We first develop the concept and distinguish it from other related, but distinct concepts in the organizational literature. We then propose specific hypotheses regarding the antecedents for external adjustment, drawing upon foundations in the literature on team effectiveness, international strategic management and institutional theory. We argue that the affect of the antecedents is moderated by contextual conditions pertaining to remote collaboration, including geographic dispersion and electronic reliance. Finally, we develop hypotheses regarding the outcomes of external adjustment, highlighting the mechanisms by which it creates consequences for collaborations, and conditions which amplify these effects. We test the proposed relationships in a sample of 109 film making projects using data collected from collaborators who made the films as well as over 4000 members of audiences who viewed them. Our findings have implications for collaborators in dynamic environments facing challenges associated with remote collaboration, which are increasingly common across many industries.

    Speaker Biography:
    In her work with teams in multinational organizations, Professor Gibson strives to increase performance, longevity and quality of work life for team members from various cultures. She is co-editor with Susan Cohen of the book Virtual Teams That Work: Creating the Conditions for Virtual Team Effectiveness (2003, Jossey-Bass) and co-author with P. Christopher Earley of the book Multinational Teams: A New Perspective (2002, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates). Her research has appeared in Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, Advances in International Comparative Management, Journal of Managerial Issues, and Group and Organization Management.




    2006-2007 Seminars



    2006-2007 Seminars

    Seminar 1

     

    November 30, 2006: David Obstfeld , The Merage School at UC Irvine

    Title: Creative projects and combinatorial search: Toward a less-routine theory of organizing

    Abstract:
    This paper introduces the concept of creative projects defined as discrete, emergent trajectories of interdependent action that multiple actors initiate and orchestrate to introduce new forms into a social context. Creative projects, along with organizational routines, are incorporated into a proposed framework, which allows for both their conceptual distinction and theoretical integration. The framework locates creative projects and routines along an agency continuum ranging from discrete (non-repetitive) to repetitive interdependent action. Three ethnographic case studies examine how evolving means and ends, combinatorial action, and knowledge articulation influence a trajectory's unfolding.

    Seminar 2

     

    January 11, 2007: Anne Miner, U of Wisconsin

    Title: Creative projects and combinatorial search: Toward a less-routine theory of organizing

    Abstract:
    Miner will sketch an overview of research on organizational learning. She will update her prior work that emphasizes how universities around the world engaged in vicarious learning about programs to promote University start-ups. Miner agues that repeated imitation in pursuit of the same goals can produce increased variance in activities and outcomes under certain conditions, in contrast to predictions from some learning and institutional theory. She suggests that there probably no single 'magic recipe for start-ups' that all universities can follow to promote local well-being. This highlights the importance of direct research on specific processes related to university spin-offs. Miner will share early data from two projects exploring learning issues in this context. She will describe an inductive qualitative study of links between scientists’ values and spin-off creation processes. She will also present very early descriptive data on the tendency of one university’s spin-offs to generate new firms themselves. Miner will invite discussion of theoretical and modeling issues in this work. The colloquium is sponsored by the Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation’s Science and Art of Strategic Innovation with the collaboration of the Center for Organizational Research & the Organization & Management area of The Paul Merage School of Business.

    Seminar 3

     

    March 01, 2007: Marco Susani, Motorola

    Title: Design as Innovation

    Seminar 4

     

    April 12, 2007: Linda Cohen, UC Irvine

    Title: Competition, innovation and racing for priority at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

    Seminar 5

     

    May 31, 2007: Alva Taylor, Dartmouth, Tuck Sch Bus

    Title: Superman or The Fantastic Four: Knowledge Combination and Experience in Innovative Teams

    Abstract:
    We examine how knowledge and experience affect both the mean and variance values of innovations from individuals and teams. We apply and extend theory on innovativeness and creativity to propose that holding multiple knowledge domains produces novel combinations that increase the variance of product performance; and that extensive experience produces outputs with high average performance. We analyzed innovations in the comic book industry, finding that innovations with extreme success and failure are affected by similar factors as high-performing innovations. Multi-member teams and teams with experience working together produced innovations with greater variation in value, but individuals were able to combine knowledge diversity more effectively than teams.

    Seminar 6

     

    June 07, 2007: Bhaven Sampat, Columbia, School of Public Health

    Title: The Dismal Science, The Crown Jewel, and the Endless Frontier: The Complicated Political Economy of the National Institutes of Health

    Abstract:
    The NIH is the biggest funder of biomedical research in the world, and the single largest supporter of research in the U.S., dedicated to “science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability.” A central tension permeating the history of the NIH is that the scientific community has tended to emphasize the “fundamental knowledge” aspect of the NIH’s mission, but taxpayers and disease interest groups ultimately are interested in the health benefits from this research. In this paper, I take the taxpayer perspective, i.e. view “fundamental knowledge” useful not for its consumption value, but rather only because of its potential impact on human health. From this perspective, I critically examine the economic rationale for funding NIH research. This rationale rests on two pillars. First, that the health returns from NIH-funded basic research are high; in particular, that NIH funding yields significant health benefits. And second, that these benefits are not appropriable by private sector actors. Together, these compose the well-known “market failure” argument for funding basic research. I begin with an overview of evidence for these arguments in the context of basic biomedical research. Next, I assess the extent to which NIH allocation patterns in practice actually conform to prescriptions from economic theory. Finally, I conclude with ruminations on theory, practice, and suggestions for future research.